by Joël van der Reijden
November 18, 2006
Update July 29, 2007
Hotel Negresco in Nice,
France. Once a meeting place of the Cercle.
"I had first learned about it in October
1967 when Carlo Pesenti, the owner of a number of important Italian
corporations, took me aside at a Chase investment forum in Paris and
invited me to join his group... The discussions were conducted in
French, and usually I was the sole American present... Members of the
Pesenti Group were all committed to European political and economic
integration... My Chase associates, who feared my membership could be
construed as "consorting with reactionaries," eventually prevailed upon
me to withdraw."
- 2002, David Rockefeller,
'Memoirs', p. 412-413.
"Formed in the Fifties... One of the most influential, secretive, and,
it goes without saying, exclusive political
clubs in the West... One member contacted by this newspaper said he
could not talk about it "even off, off the record". Another simply put
the phone down... The source of its funding is a mystery..."
- June 29, 1997, The Independent,
'Aitken dropped by the Right's secret club', one of the very few
mainstream reports on Le Cercle.
"Coudenhove said: "You know, it is awfully difficult to make Europe with
the English, but without them, it is impossible". That is very true."
- Otto von Habsburg, key founder
of Le Cercle, head of the Paneuropa Union and one of the most central
players in the underground Vatican-Paneuropa network.
founder" Jean Monnet
Crozier's anti-communist propaganda network
More on the
American Cercle members
Franco-German vs. US-supported Anglo-German alliance
The dilemma of
the British Tories
Religious extremism and concluding summary
Le Cercle is a secretive, privately-funded and transnational discussion
group which regularly meets in different parts of the world. It is attended
by a mixture of politicians, ambassadors, bankers, shady businessmen, oil
experts, editors, publishers, military officers and intelligence agents,
which may or may not have retired from their official functions.
The participants come from western or
western-oriented countries. Many important members tend to be affiliated
with the aristocratic circles in London or obscure elements within the
Vatican, and accusations of links to fascism and Synarchism are anything but
uncommon in this milieu. The greatest enemy of the Cercle has been the
Soviet Union and members have been crusading against communist subversion
for many decades.
During this process, Cercle members
unfortunately have accused almost every nationalist and socialist
government, every labour union, every terrorist, and every serious
investigator of western intelligence of being in bed with the KGB.
In addition, the Cercle is also strongly focused on European integration,
going back to the efforts of its early members to bring about Franco-German
The significant presence of Paneuropa-affiliated
Opus Dei members and Knights of Malta, together with statements of the
Vatican and Otto von Habsburg, clearly indicate there's an agenda in the
background to some day bring about a new Holy Roman Empire with its borders
stretching from the Atlantic to the Black Sea and from the Baltic Sea to
Interestingly, the latest generation of British
Cercle members, whose predecessors were keen on joining the European Union,
now do everything in their power to keep Britain out of the emerging
European superstate, having lost faith they can become a significant force
within Europe. Their American associates, however, would like for them to
continue the effort of breaking into the Franco-German alliance and possibly
to establish a new Anglo-German alliance.
It seems like a cold war is raging in Europe.
One that doesn't directly involve the Soviets.
Click picture to get a list
of dates, locations, and sources
Back to Contents
Le Cercle used be known as the Pinay Circle, or Cercle Pinay by its original
French founders. Although the group was named after a French statesman who
was prime minister from March to December 1952, the real organizer of this
group was a person named Jean Violet, a close associate of Pinay since 1951
Jean Violet has a murky past to say the least. In French and later English
literature, Violet is named as a pre-WWII member of the Comite Secret pour
l'Action Revolutionnaire (CSAR), a secretive fascist group which, like
Freemasonry, had its own initiation rites (2).
Some authors have suggested that CSAR, popularly
known at the time as the Cagoule, or "hooded ones", was one of the most
important branches of the legendary Synarchist Movement of Empire and worked
to undermine the French Republic in preparation for the coming Nazi invasion
Whatever truth can be found in this claim, it is
known that Jean Violet was arrested after the war for having collaborated
with the enemy. He was released however "on orders from above" (4),
went to work as a lawyer in Paris, and decided to become a member of Opus
Dei (or, possibly, he became a member first, which resulted in his release).
In 1951, Violet came into contact with Antoine
Pinay, a Catholic also said to have been in bed with Opus Dei, who asked him
to solve a problem with a Geneva-based firm that had been sieged by the
Nazis during WWII. As the story goes, Pinay was so impressed with the way
Violet handled his assignment that he recommended him to French
intelligence, the SDECE (5).
Also, Violet soon managed to hook up with Opus
Dei luminaries as Alfredo Sanchez Bella and Otto von Habsburg (6),
who had founded the European Centre of Documentation and Information (CEDI)
in 1949 (7).
Habsburg was chairman for life of CEDI and later
also of the Paneuropa Union. Sanchez Bella was the Spanish ambassador to
Rome under Franco in the 1960s while his brother was head of Opus Dei in
Spain (8). Violet also became an associate of Father Yves-Marc
Dubois, a senior member of Vatican intelligence and possibly its head
CEDI was one of the first in a long line of hard-right, often aristocratic
institutions part of the Vatican-Paneuropa network. One of these
institutions, founded by Antoine Pinay and Jean Violet, became Cercle Pinay,
and besides that it was set up "somewhere in the 1950s" (10), the
exact date remains unknown.
The claim that Cercle Pinay was put together in
1969 (11) is wrong and has probably been a mix-up with the
Belgian Cercle des Nations, which was founded that year by a secretary
general of CEDI (12). Violet was one of the few French members of
this Cercle des Nations (13) that was part of the same Opusian
The crowd of Cercle des Nations has featured in
a number of Belgian conspiracies and some were involved with the "Dutroux
network" that allegedly didn't exist. Bit more about that later.
Like many others, Pinay and Violet understood that the basis for a stable
united Europe would be a Franco-German reconciliation. Therefore they
recruited in their Cercle the most important individuals that were working
towards this aim.
From Germany they invited the long time chancellor and foreign minister
Konrad Adenauer, and two of his closest associates, Franz Joseph Bach, who
ran Adenauer's office; and Franz Joseph Strauss, the controversial
hard-right political figure from Bavaria who was a defense minister in
Adenauer's second cabinet.
Early Cercle members
representing the Paneuropa Union, the European Coal and Steel Community,
France, Germany and Italy.
Andreotti was not a founding member.
The others were: Robert Schuman and Jean Monnet,
in addition to Pinay, were recruited from France. Schuman had been French
prime minister from 1947 to 1948 and French foreign minister from 1948 to
Jean Monnet, as Planning Commissioner of the National Economic Council
from 1945 to 1952, and appointed by De Gaulle, carried out essential work
for the reconstruction of the French economy.
He was connected to the highest financial and
political circles in North America, the UK, and western Europe, and was one
of the major players in the push for an integrated Europe in the aftermath
of WWII. As founding vice-chairman of the Committee for European Economic
Co-operation (CEEC), which oversaw the Marshall Plan aid, he was the most
influential player in this organization.
This short description doesn't even begin to
describe the life of this extraordinary Frenchman, so lets take a more in
depth look at him.
Pinay and especially Violet
were the official founders of Le Cercle, with Habsburg, vice president of
the Paneuropa Union under Coudenhove-Kalergi, acting as Violet's patron.
These men initially brought
together Schuman, Monnet, Adenauer and a number of other individuals. All of these men, except
Monnet, were either members or sympathizers of Opus Dei.
The financial empire of
Pesenti, who has no known direct ties to Opus Dei, was funded by the Vatican
Bank and he turned out to be Banco Ambrosiano's largest minority shareholder
when it collapsed in 1982.
Monnet, as the only one among
these names, was connected to leading bankers in London and New York, and
used to be secretary general of the League of Nations.
N.B.: Pesenti might not have
been a founding member, but used to be a top level player in the 1960s,
chairing meetings and inviting David Rockefeller. He later also financed some
of the work of Violet and Crozier.
Back to Contents
"Europe's founder" Jean Monnet
Right before and after WWI Monnet hooked up with leading figures in the
Anglo-American establishment. One of the first was Lord Kindersley, who
during his life was a partner in Lazard Brothers, a chairman of the Hudson's
Bay Company, and a director of the Bank of England. Kindersley's son is
known to have become a Pilgrims Society executive (14).
Another very important person was Arthur Salter, whom he first met in 1914
Salter and Monnet would become involved in setting up the Inter-Allied
Maritime Transport Council, the Supreme Economic Council at Versailles, and
the League of Nations. In 1931, Salter wrote 'The United States of Europe',
which favored a federal Europe within the framework of the League of
Nations. Probably not by coincidence, Monnet's post-WWII proposal for a
political structure of a united Europe was almost exactly the same.
years after writing 'The United States of Europe', Salter became a professor
at Oxford and a fellow of All Souls College, Oxford, named by Quigley as the
center of the Round Table Group.
In fact, Quigley identified Salter as a
member of the Milner Group (16), and it is known that Salter shared a few
boards with Lord Astor, a prominent Pilgrims Society family, and the
Viscount Cecil of Chelwood of that time, a member of the family that is said
to have coordinated the Round Table group (and appears in both Le Cercle and
the Pilgrims). Salter also became a member of the Privy Council in 1941.
Others Monnet became a close associate of were Sir Eric Drummond, the 16th
Earl of Perth, who was a member of a very aristocratic family in Britain;
John Foster Dulles; Douglas Dillon; a Lazard Brothers' banker whose
sister-in-law was Lady Nancy Astor; and John J. McCloy.
He also was a long
time business associate of Elisha Walker (American International
Corporation; Kuhn, Loeb & Co.; CFR), with whom he clandestinely tried to
take over A. P. Giannini's Transamerica Corporation and its Bank of America
network. It failed after a lawsuit in which Giannini vowed to fight the
"Wall Street domination" on the board of his company.
In February 1932,
Walker and Monnet were ousted as chair and vice chair respectively (17).
He then went into business with the leaders of the Chinese Green Gang Triad,
Tse-Ven Soong and Chiang Kai-shek.
He took his assistant, David Drummond
(the future 17th Lord Perth; from a catholic Hungarian family which
emigrated to Scotland in the 11th century; two members of this family were
among the eight original founders of the Order of the Thistle; raised by the
Duke and Duchess of Norfolk, a very old catholic aristocratic family; later
Privy Councillor; later chair of the Ditchley Foundation for 3 years; later
representative of the Queen to the Vatican; became a member of the extremely
elite Roxburghe Club, together with members of the Cecil, Cavendish, Howard
(Dukes of Norfolk), Mellon, Rothschild, and Oppenheimer families), the son
of Monnet's superior at the League of Nations, to China where he lived until
In 1935, when Monnet was still in Shanghai, he became a business partner of
George Murnane in Monnet, Murnane & Co. Murnane was connected to the
Wallenbergs in Sweden, the Bosch family in Germany, the Solvays and Boëls in
Belgium, and John Foster Dulles, André Meyer, and the Rockefellers in the
United States. He was considered among the most connected persons of his
John Dulles of Sullivan & Cromwell provided the financial backing
for the partnership. After Monnet got back to the United States, he was
briefly investigated for tax evasion. Then, in 1938, Monnet, Murnane & Co.
was briefly investigated by the FBI, who suspected it of having laundered
Nazi money (19). Nothing came of this investigation, but the
Nazi-cooperation of some of Monnet's close friends, like Douglas Dillon and
John Dulles, or Murnane's earlier firm, Lee, Higginson & Co., is well
When WWII broke out, Monnet was one of the most important individuals in
contact with both the French resistance and the Churchill government. While
in London at the time that France was overrun, Monnet proposed to General
Charles de Gaulle, the leader of the French government in exile, the
creation of a Franco-British Union; a plan to completely unite France and
The Churchill government accepted, even a desperate de Gaulle
accepted, but eventually the (supposedly Synarchist) opposition in France,
headed by Marshall Petain, killed the plan. They saw it as an attempt of
Britain to wrestle control over France. Petain subsequently became the
leader of Vichy France.
After the war, Monnet was appointed by de Gaulle to reorganize the French
economy. But Monnet also began to reorganize the whole of Europe.
Together with an equally mysterious Joseph Retinger (connected to both MI6
and the Vatican; founder of Bilderberg), who was raised by European nobility
(21), Monnet organized the May 1948 Congress of Europe, which met under the
auspices of the United Europe Movement in The Hague. Chairman was Winston
Churchill, whose son-in-law, Duncan Sandys, worked closely with Joseph
Retinger and CIA heads Allen Dulles and Bill Donovan.
Later Cercle members
as Robert Schuman and Konrad Adenauer were in attendance, just as Alcide de
Gasperi and Paul Henri Spaak. The CIA would become the primary source of
funding for the United European Movement in the following decades (22).
In 1949, with the support of Adenauer, Robert Schuman proposed the so called
"Schuman Plan", which became the basis for the European Coal and Steel
Community (ECSC). It was established in 1952 and is usually seen as the
birth of the European Union. In reality, Monnet, who became the first
chairman of the ECSC's High Authority, had entirely written the "Schuman
And interestingly, even this might only partially be true, as
Monnet's structure for Europe turned out to be a slightly adapted version of
Arthur Salter's 1931 paper 'The United States of Europe', which originally
advocated a federal Europe within the framework of the League of Nations
(23). Both men worked high up in the League of Nations and had a close
relationship to the leading Anglo-American families, as has already been
One year later, on 24 October 1950, the French prime minister René Pleven
introduced his "Pleven Plan". As happened earlier with Schuman, who didn't
support this latest proposal, this document too had been written entirely by
Jean Monnet (although he might have discussed it with his friend Arthur
Salter). It proposed the creation of the European Defence Community (EDC): a
Paneuropean defense force.
Eventually this proposal was defeated by the
Gaullist nationalists in France, and Europe's defense forces remained part
of the newly-established NATO, which was (and is) mostly international,
instead of supranational.
After the failure of his European Defence Community (EDC), Monnet doubled
his efforts and founded the very low-profile Action Committee for the United
States of Europe (ACUSE). It brought together leading international members
of governments and labour unions, mainly to discuss European economic
integration. ACUSE, together with the US State Department, lobbied and
pressured a great deal behind the scenes in the run up to the 1957 Treaty of
Rome, which created the actual European Economic Community (EEC "Economic"
was dropped in '91).
All of Monnet's most important associates in this
process were members of the Pilgrims Society: David K.E. Bruce, the Dulles
brothers, John J. McCloy, George Ball, C. Douglas Dillon, and president
Eisenhower. Cercle member Konrad Adenauer was among the signers of the
treaty, just as Paul Henri Spaak.
Also, the founding vice president of the ACUSE was Max Kohnstamm, who became the initial 1973 European chairman of
the Rockefeller-founded Trilateral Commission. Kohnstamm used to be private
secretary to Queen Wilhelmina of the Netherlands. Antoine Pinay was another
important member of ACUSE, the organization that Time Magazine dubbed a
"European shadow government" in 1969 (24).
In 1961, Monnet managed to replace the OEEC, initially established to
oversee the Marshall Plan, with the broader Organization for Economic
Cooperation and Development (OECD) (25). The OECD since then has been one of
the most influential institutions promoting globalization and free trade,
today working in partnership with the World Bank, the IMF, and the World
Mainland European governors of the Atlantic Institute of
International Affairs, which also was founded in 1961, have had a relatively
strong presence in these institutions, especially in the OECD. Pilgrims
Society members have been dominant in the other institutions while the
Vatican-connected Paneuropa members have always played a minor role in the
institutions above and tend to criticize the Anglo-American Liberal
Around the same time Monnet replaced the OEEC with the OECD, he met with
Edward Heath (As Lord Privy Seal 1960-1963 responsible for the initial talks
to bring Britain into the European Common Market; head Conservative party
1965-1975; Conservative prime minister UK 1970-1974; very committed to the
EU; a close Sun Myung Moon associate) at the house of his good friend David
Drummond, the 17th Lord Perth (26), a member of an old aristocratic family
with very good connections to both the Vatican and the highest levels in
British society, including the Rothschilds, Oppenheimers, Mellons, Cecils,
and Howards (27).
Lord Perth was a chairman of the Ditchley Foundation and
his father was the initial secretary-general of the League of Nations while
Monnet was his deputy. Heath became a member of Monnet's Action Committee
and in 1973 he signed Britain into the European Economic Community. This
only became possible after De Gaulle had ceased to be president of France.
Monnet was an early supporter of de Gaulle, as he was of the opinion that
this legendary general was the only person who might be able to reunite the
French people after WWII. However, in later years some friction developed
between these two men.
De Gaulle was a nationalist who supported a strong
intergovernmental Europe, preferably with France being the major influence.
Monnet, on the other hand, was a no holds barred supranationalist.
Back to Contents
Jean Monnet clearly was among the most influential and secretive of the Cercle members that pushed for a united Europe.
However, according to Brian Crozier, a former chairman of Le Cercle,
Jean Violet himself also played an
important behind the scenes role several years after the European Economic
Community (EEC) had been founded:
"By far the dominant theme in de Gaulle's foreign policy (as Violet
interpreted it) was Franco-German reconciliation. A genius at (non-violent)
operations of influence, Violet played an historically key role between 1957
and 1961 in bringing about this rapprochement, which is the real core of the
European Community. He had developed a close friendship with Antoine Pinay,
who had served as French Premier in 1951 under the unstable Fourth Republic.
At a lower level, a complementary role was played by his SDECE colleague
Violet was the go-between in secret meetings between Pinay and the West German Chancellor, Konrad Adenauer, and his coalition
partner Franz Josef Strauss. These paved the way for Charles de Gaulle's own
encounters with Adenauer, which culminated in the Franco-German Treaty of
January 1963. [Treaty of Elysée]" (28)
The Treaty of Elysée is a relatively unknown agreement (for the average
person) between France and Germany in which both countries agreed to consult
with each other on important foreign policy and economic issues, ahead of
time of general EEC meetings. It is the core of the often-discussed
Franco-German alliance, which has had great influence on the European
project ever since.
Some say, too much.
The Elysée agreement was made at the time that de Gaulle first vetoed the
accession of Britain into the European Economic Community (EEC). The
decision was quietly backed by Adenauer.
De Gaulle argued that Britain's
economy was based on trade with its Commonwealth and did not have a large
agricultural economy, like France and most other countries in mainland
Europe. This, together with Britain's historical "special relationship" with
the United States, convinced de Gaulle that Britain would never be fully
committed to the interests of Europe (29).
Of course, it's far from
unreasonable to think that de Gaulle's primary reason was that he saw
Britain and its ally the United States as a threat to France's influence
within the European Union. A few years later de Gaulle also withdrew from
NATO, expelled all Allied forces from France, and tried to get on good terms
with the Soviet Union. In addition to the enemies he had made when he
withdrew from Algeria, he now also angered people like Brian Crozier and his
French intelligence associate Colonel Antoine Bonnemaison.
Bonnemaison ran a
Cercle-like operation (let's shorten it to Le Centre), of which Crozier had
become a member (30).
Members of the Centre had already labeled de Gaulle
"the enemy" in 1965, and were looking for ways to evict him from office
(31). Within four years they got what they wanted, although it's not known
if they had any active involvement in ousting de Gaulle, besides spying on
him. But they certainly had the connections to do that.
It would still be several years before the Opusian Jean Violet and
Anglo-Saxon Brian Crozier would meet and join hands. Ironically, at this
time, when Crozier was involved in spying on de Gaulle, Violet was carrying
out de Gaulle's defense and foreign policy objectives, and possibly was the
French president's most important intelligence agent.
Even when Crozier was
head of Le Cercle from 1980 to 1985, he did not know Jean Violet's full
"It was not until the spring of 1993 that I learned the details of Jean
Violet's real secret service role when General de Gaulle was in power. A
background document was given to me by one of Violet's ex-colleagues.
Ironically, a few years before Gabriel Decazes and I started spying on de
Gaulle, Violet was masterminding a Service Spécial to promote the General's
objectives in defence and foreign policy.
The document began with a paragraph of wistful praise for Britain's
remarkable achievements in intelligence and clandestine action. But France,
too, offered a precedent: Louis XV had set up a special service known to the
few who were aware of it as the Secret du Roi. This service reported
directly to the King, bypassing the Foreign Ministry of the day.
Only two people were aware of de Gaulle's latter-day model: General Grossin,
the then head of the SDECE, and a certain 'Monsieur X'. It required no great
deductive powers to assume that Monsieur X had to be Maître Violet, but Jean
refused to comment when I asked him. My other source, however, confirmed my
supposition. No wonder, in retrospect, that Violet's shadowy role and
apparently bottomless purse stirred resentful envy among his colleagues and
poisoned Alexandre de Marenches's mind against Violet, whom he had never
Violet saw Franco-German rapprochement as de Gaulle's most important foreign
policy objective, but judging by his association with people who wanted
Britain in the European Union as a "third pillar" it is doubtful he
supported all of de Gaulle's later decisions.
In 1980, Violet picked Crozier
as his follow-up to the presidency/chairmanship of Le Cercle (33).
had been recruited by the Frenchman nine years earlier, and introduced by a
person who had been a close assistant to Cercle member Jean Monnet (who
struggled for a long time to get Britain into the EEC).
"On 1 March 1971, a long interview I had given to Joseph Fromm appeared in
US News and World Report. The theme was terrorist and Communist intentions.
On reading this interview, a Frenchman named Maitre Jean Violet came to see
me in my Piccadilly office, with an introduction from Francois Duchene, my
former Economist colleague and Director of the International Institute for
Violet impressed me with the clarity and precision of
his arguments - Gallic logic at its best - and with the breath of his
intellectual grasp of world problems." (34)
Duchene had met Monnet in exactly the same way as Crozier met Violet.
1950, Duchene wrote a series of articles for the Manchester Guardian which
came to the attention of Jean Monnet. In response, Monnet invited Duchene to
become one of his assistants in building a united Europe. Duchene followed
Monnet when the latter became head of the European Coal and Steel Community
(ECSC). He then followed Monnet to Paris and became an editor of the
Economist. In 1958, Duchene became a director of Monnet's Action Committee
for the United States of Europe (ACUSE), which struggled to get Britain in
the EEC under the dictations of the Treaty of Rome.
He remained on the board
until 1963. During this time, he suffered a nervous breakdown for some
unknown reason. In 1963, he went on to become leader writer for the
Economist and from 1967 to 1969 he was a Ford Foundation fellow (a huge US
From 1969 to 1974 he was a director of
the prestigious International Institute for Strategic Studies (IISS), a
think tank on international affairs with directors linked to intelligence
and the high financial circles. In 1974 or 1975, Duchene became the European
deputy chairman of the Trilateral Commission, working under Max Kohnstamm,
Monnet's partner at the Action Committee (35).
So, as can be concluded from the above text, during Duchene's time as a
director of the IISS, he approached Brian Crozier on behalf of Jean Violet,
and very likely on behalf of the Cercle in general, as Crozier mentioned
that his involvement with the Cercle started that same year (36).
Interestingly, Duchene not only introduced Violet as a person who worked for
French intelligence, but also as a person who "represented a powerful
consortium of French business interests." (37)
It seems there's no end to the interests Cercle-founder Jean Violet
represented during his lifetime: the fascist CSAR group, Opus Dei, Paneuropa,
the French government, French business, French intelligence, and even German
intelligence, as former Nazi General Reinhard Gehlen recruited him at one
point for his involvement with Le Cercle (38).
Whereas Jean Violet is
tightly locked into the Paneuropa-Vatican network, his associates Jean
Monnet, Francois Duchene, Brian Crozier and several other (Duchene is not
confirmed as a Cercle member) British Cercle members seem to be more
connected to the Anglo-American interests.
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anti-communist propaganda network
In the 1950s and early 1960s Crozier worked as a journalist and editor for
the Sunday Times, the Economist, and the BBC.
During this time he made his
first intelligence contacts and used them for scoops.
"[Reagan] shared my view that
Nelson was more intelligent than his banker brother, David. He was
critical of the role of David Rockefeller's Chase Manhattan Bank in
easing technology transfers to the Soviet Union. Reagan also mentioned,
with mild distaste, the role of the Trilateral Commission in sponsoring
(Free Agent, p. 182)
When John Hay "Jock" Whitney was ambassador to
Great Britain from 1957 to 1961, Crozier was invited to his inner circle
Whitney was a Rockefeller associate, a friend of the British royal
family, a CIA associate, and a Pilgrims Society vice president until the day
he died (40). A few years later, Crozier went to work for the IRD, doing
studies (some prefer to call it "disseminate propaganda") on KGB subversion.
He also started to work with the CIA, MI6, and the intelligence agencies of
France, Germany, Holland, Belgium, Morocco, Iran, Argentina, Chile, and
The CIA's Congress for Cultural Freedom (CCF) also approached him to
reconstruct and commercialize their organization. Crozier, however, turned
down this offer as he was too busy with his other undertakings. He later did
a study for the CCF, investigating its South American network. Some time
after that study, in 1965-1966, he reconstructed the CCFs Forum Service,
turning it into Forum World Features (FWF).
John Hay Whitney was the one who
took over the financial burden of FWF from the CIA when it was
Another billionaire CIA associate, Richard Mellon Scaife,
later took over funding of FWF from Whitney. Scaife also funded Crozier's
Institute for the Study of Conflict (ISC), which he founded in 1970, and
showed up at gatherings of the Foreign Affairs Research Institute, an
anti-communist and anti-terrorist propaganda group headed by several British
Cercle members, including Crozier (41).
In his book 'Free Agent' Crozier
summarized the purpose of his ISC:
"Throughout my period as Director, the
Institute for the Study of Conflict was involved in exposing the
fallacies of 'détente' and warning the West of the dangers inherent a
policy of illusion." (42)
Crozier and associates rejected Kissinger's
Détente, aimed at reducing tensions between the superpowers, because, this
group claimed, the Soviets continued to infiltrate and significantly
influence Western Labour and Green parties, trade unions, media, and
Also, they were of the opinion that the initial
post-WWII policy of Containment (the Truman doctrine) was flawed. Instead,
they argued that the West not only should resist a further communist
encroachment, but also that it had to liberate countries that had fallen
under the control of the Soviet empire. Every piece of territory that the
Soviets conquered had to be taken back.
A noble and intelligent idea you would think. Unfortunately, many people who
headed this lobby from behind the scenes just happen to be so far to the
right they could actually be labeled as fascists. And in between these left
and right wing extremists you had the Rockefeller clique, seemingly with
their own agenda, encouraging technology to be sold to the Soviets (43).
Even Crozier and some of his associates criticized that, probably never
entertaining the idea that these people might know a thing or two they
In his book Crozier claims that the people who exposed his Forum World
Services, The 61, and his Cercle were mostly manipulated or working for the
KGB. He also presents information in such a way that will lead you to
conclude that people like Mohammed Mossadeq and Harold Wilson were KGB paws,
and that Pope John Paul I & II were both targeted by the KGB for
assassination (only John Paul I died of that, allegedly).
The KGB is
basically behind everything. Crozier even repeated a 1978 claim by Time
Magazine that the most effective KGB propaganda was that of discrediting the
He also likes to state that "neo-colonialism" was a term invented
by the Soviets, etc. Many of his accusations are based on statements from
anonymous intelligence officers. At times, although he normally focuses on
his own connections, he has used or referred to such reliable sources as the
CIA sponsored Encounter magazine, the CIA sponsored Reader's Digest, his own
CIA sponsored ISC think tank, the CIA sponsored journalist Claire Sterling,
or to the CIA connected Zionist extremist Michael Ledeen.
It is important to consider that Crozier perfectly fits the profile of
someone like Colin Wallace, the British intelligence agent who was handed
all kinds of forged material to be put into circulation (46).
recently, a Belgian associate of Jean Violet, Crozier's closest colleague
for years, was caught forging KGB documents that had to prove a vast left
wing conspiracy against this person (47).
Crozier's good friend Richard
Perle (48), and some of the other people he is associated with, would also
know a thing or two about cooking or inventing evidence to sway public
opinion. Crozier himself has been very influential in the late 1970s and
early 1980s in setting up the war on terrorism.
His friend Perle would take
it to the next level after 9/11. More about that later, as Crozier's bio is
a lot longer.
Back to Contents
We briefly discussed the history of some of the key players in Le Cercle:
Jean Violet and Antoine Pinay, the official founders; and their patron, Otto
von Habsburg; how Violet and Pinay recruited individuals like Jean Monnet,
Konrad Adenauer and Robert Schuman, and influenced the early history of the
We also discussed how an agent of both Monnet and Violet
recruited a well-connected member of British and American intelligence,
Brian Crozier, and made him head of their Cercle in 1980. We also discussed
the anti-communist and pro-Europe activities of its key members.
However, more key people were involved with Le Cercle over the years. Take
Carlo Pesenti from Italy and Sir Peter Tennant from England. Pesenti was a
close associate of the Vatican's financial circles; Tennant an important
trade promoter for the City of London. They acted as chairmen of Cercle
sessions when it was under the presidency of Jean Violet (49). Another
important person was Franz-Josef Bach, who used to run Konrad Adenauer's
political office. Bach co-organized Cercle meetings from at least 1980 to at
least 1991 (50).
A quick summary follows of who these people were. Look in
membership list attached to this article for more details, including the
source of each individual name.
Scion of what was one of the wealthiest
families of Italy until the 1970s, together with the Agnellis and
Pirellis. Financier of some of the enterprises of Jean Violet and
Brian Crozier; possibly also of Le Cercle. Chaired some of the
meetings of Le Cercle and invited David Rockefeller.
Head of Italcementi/Italmobiliare, one of the few key firms in cooperation
with the IOR, or Vatican Bank. Boards of some of the companies it
owned were loaded with aristocrats and SMOM members. Italmobiliare
was the largest minority shareholder of Banco Ambrosiano at the time
of its collapse in 1982. Pesenti was investigated for his role in
the collapse but died during the court proceedings.
Sir Peter Tennant
Recruited into the SOE (WWII rival of
MI6) by its founder, Colonel Sir Charles Hambro (head of Hambro, a
Pilgrims Society bank; close friend of Churchill and the Wallenbergs;
his son went to live with the Wallenberg family during WWII; head of
the SOE 1942-1943; Sir Hambro's deputy in the SOE, Henry "Harry"
Sporborg, also of Hambro Bank, ended up in the small inner circle
committee of Crozier's Shield) as one of its first members.
Helped Sefton Delmer (the Lord Beaverbrook agent who used to be in contact
with Hitler's inner circle) with material for his propaganda
broadcasts to the German armed forces. Deputy commandant of the
British sector in Berlin 1950-1952. Went on to become a long time
major trade representative for the City of London and had a lot of
involvement in the negotiations leading up to the 1957 Treaty of
Joined Barclays Bank in the City of London as a director and
industrial advisor in 1972. Chaired some meetings of Le Cercle.
Co-organized a fundraising in 1976 with a bunch of Pilgrims Society
members and leading officers to save Canterbury Cathedral. Joined
the board of the International Energy Bank in 1981, which financed
worldwide oil and gas explorations, starting with the United States
Helped to establish the right-wing political pressure
group Policy Research Associates.
Ran Konrad Adenauer's office, who was
chancellor of the Federal Republic of West Germany from 1949 to
1963. German ambassador to Iran. Conservative member of the
Bundestag from 1969 to 1972. Went to work for the Swiss-based
Economic and Development Corporation (EDC), an unacknowledged
lobbying group for Northrop.
Named as a shareholder of EDC and
acknowledged that he had "advised them [EDC] about political things
- the stability of a country, whether it was going to be an
industrial country or not, whether it was going to be stable or
not... I go to the country, see the country and make a report." (51)
Senator Church of the Church Committee said about the Northrop
arrangement: "an intelligence network like a government would employ
to get inside information, to pull the strings... the records itself
show that Northrop has been doing it." (52)
Commercial and financial
advisor to the Siemens Corporation.
Other important members of Le Cercle were-are Lord Julian Amery, his protege
Jonathan Aitken and Lord Norman Lamont, all three members of the Privy
In 1985, Amery was picked by Brian Crozier as
his follow up as president of Le Cercle (53). Aitken was Amery's
protege and is known to have chaired at least some meetings in the early
1990s (54). Lord Lamont, the Rothschild employee, has repeatedly
been named chairman of Le Cercle since 1996 (55).
Here are some additional details on these
Son of Leopold Amery (1873-1955), who
was close associate of Lord Milner and the Rothschilds. Leopold was
a British imperialist heavily involved in the creation of Israel. He
also was a great supporter of Coudenhove-Kalergi's Paneuropa Union,
which was initially funded by the Warburgs and Rothschilds (56), and
was later headed by Otto von Habsburg. Leopold had two sons: John
and Julian. John went to work for French, Spanish, German, and
Italian fascists, and was eventually hanged for it. Julian was
Churchill’s personal representative to Chiang Kai-shek in 1945.
Reportedly a life-long MI6 operative, although it isn't really known
what he has been doing in this function. In 1950, he became a
Conservative member of parliament and served in the cabinets of
Harold Macmillan and Edward Heath. Married Harold Macmillan's
daughter in 1950. Involved in the founding of the CIA's Congress for
Cultural Freedom in 1950. Representative to the Council of Europe
1950-1956. Representative to the Round Table Conference on Malta in
1955. Involved with the Rhodesia and Nyasaland Club in the 1950s and
1960s, together with the Oppenheimers.
Became a member of the Privy
Council in 1960. Member of the very aristocratic Other Club since
1960, over the years together with the Duke of Devonshire
(Cavendish), the Cecils, Lord Rothschild, Lord Rees-Mogg, Prince
Charles, Pilgrims Society president Lord Carrington, Pilgrims
Society member Lord Richardson of Duntisbourne, and a whole string
of ex-prime ministers. With his friends David Stirling and Billy
McLean, and help from the Cercle-affiliated royal houses of Jordan
and Saudi Arabia, he set up a private SAS war in Yemen in the early
1960s in an effort to get Nasser out.
One of the most prominent
supporters of the illegal pro-white dictatorship in Rhodesia during
the 1970s. In 1975, he claimed that it seemed more and more that the
British trade unions were infiltrated by the KGB. Said to have been
at a meeting on November 15,1982 with Prince Johannes von Thurn und
Taxis and several known Cercle members about an expansion of Jewish
settlements on the West Bank (57).
Chairman of the London chapter of
the Global Economic Action Institute, a free-market organization
that was exposed in 1986 as being funded by the Moonie cult. Julian
not only was an avid empire-builder, just like his father, but also
in favour of Britain joining the European Common Market. He was also
a supporter of a strong nuclear deterrent against the Soviets.
Picked by Crozier as the new president of Le Cercle in 1985.
Consultant to the extremely corrupt BCCI in the 1980s.
Jonathan Aitken, the next president of Le Cercle. Good friend of the
very powerful and dynastic Cecil family, which also was very
prominent in the initial Round Table clique.
Great nephew of Hitler-intimate Lord
Beaverbrook, whose son ended up in the 1001 Club. Served as a war
correspondent, and reportedly an MI6 agent, during the 1960s in the
Middle-East, Vietnam, and Africa.
Became a politician and member of
parliament. During the 1980s, Aitken was a director of BMARC, a
company that exported weapons to intermediary countries, who sold
these weapons again to the intended countries (like Iraq). CEO of
TV-Am and chairman of Aitken Hume Plc, a banking and investment
group. In 1992, he was appointed Defense Minister. During this time,
he stood in close contact with co-Cercle member and MI6 head of
Middle-East affairs Geoffrey Tantum. Chairman of Le Cercle.
of having lobbied for three arms contractors: GEC, Marconi and VSEL,
in an effort to sell many millions worth of arms to Saudi-Arabia.
Through multiple offshore companies in Switzerland and Panama,
submarines, howitzers, medium-range laser guided bombs, Black Hawks,
and EH101 helicopters were sold and shipped. After his trial and
brief time in jail, Aitken is one of the few people who had to
resign from the Privy Council. Seemingly funded by British
intelligence during tough times. Has become an extremely religious
evangelist who even went on a few Jesuit retreats.
Claims that since
Britain has failed to become the dominant power in the European
Union, Britain should withdraw its membership in the EU.
Very influential British politician who
was the campaign manager for John Major. Worked at Rothschilds from
1968 to 1979. Became an important politician and leading eurosceptic
under Thatcher, who also led the Treaty of Maastricht negotiations
Handled Russia's negotiations with institutions as the IMF and World Bank on behalf of Gorbachev and Yeltsin. Again
director of N.M. Rothschild and Sons Ltd 1993-1995, personally
appointed by Sir Evelyn de Rothschild against the advice of the
other board members. Appointed chairman of Le Cercle in 1996 after
Aitken had to step down. Member of the Privy Council. Director of
Scottish Re and many other insurance, banking, and chemical
Advisor to the Monsanto Corporation. Chairman of the
obscure Oil Club. Member of the Neoconservative Benador Associates,
together with Arnaud de Borchgrave, Alexander Haig, and James
Woolsey. Director of General Mediterranean Holding of the
controversial former Saddam associate and arms dealer Nadhmi Auchi,
who also is a member of Le Cercle. Sought the release of Pinochet.
Has visited Bilderberg.
As chairman of the British Iranian Chamber
of Commerce, he's been promoting increased trade with Iran while the
US is about to attack this country for allegedly trying to create
nuclear weapons. As head of the Bruges Group he is a leader in the eurosceptic movement in Britain.
There is some confusion these days about who is president and-or chairman of
When Pinay was president of the group the
chairmanship of the individual meetings was shared out among people like
Pesenti, Tennant, and Crozier. The presidency was later handed over to Jean
Violet, Brian Crozier, and Julian Amery. However, since then their
successors have been referred to as chairmen of Le Cercle.
Following is a list of heads of Le Cercle,
compiled by comparing a number of different sources.
1950s - 1970s
1970s - 1980
1980 - 1985
1985 - 1990s
(Likely until 1991, when Amery retired
from public office)
1990s - 1996
Lord Norman Lamont
1996 - today
Back to Contents
At some point a more exclusive coordinating group, or "executive committee",
was formed within the wider Cercle, initially referred to as the Pinay
Group. Few details are available about this group, besides the fact that it
worked out possible action on political issues that were current at the
Both Crozier (58) and Langemann (59) acknowledged this, and David
Rockefeller's reference to a "Pesenti Group" (60) likely was a reference to
this inner circle. The Group might have been the same as the "Pinay
Committee" that appeared in documents of the Institute for the Study of
Conflict (ISC), leaked in 1975 to Time Out Magazine (the first known public
references to the Cercle).
The Pinay Committee commissioned Crozier's
institute to produce several reports, which were then spread to right wing
officials on both sides of the Atlantic. Unfortunately, the 1500 ISC
documents that were leaked have mostly gone missing (61).
Several years after the ISC leak, German intelligence officer Hans Langemann
provided more details on this coordinating group. Langemann was head of
Bavarian State Security in the 1970s and early 1980s. One of his colleagues
was Hans von Machtenberg (a pseudonym) who attended meetings of Le Cercle.
Von Machtenberg agreed to pass on full briefings to Langemann about the
Cercle meetings in exchange for information gathered by Langemann from his
own intelligence contacts.
Seemingly after questioning the motives of the Cercle, Langemann wrote down and recorded what he knew about it and
eventually sold it to Kronket Magazine in the early 1980s. Der Spiegel soon
picked up on the story of Kronket and exposed the role of their political
enemy it, Franz Josef Strauss.
The 1980 and 1982 articles of Der Spiegel
were based on internal memos of Hans Langemann, seemingly informing persons
within the German government about the clandestine efforts of the Cercle to
get Franz Josef Strauss elected Chancellor.
According to Der Spiegel,
Langemann had written the following text on November 8, 1979 (translated)
Protected source contributions to state security. Personal for the state minister only.
"The militant conservative London
publicist, Brian Crozier, Director of the famous Institute for the
Study of Conflict up to September 1979, has been working with his
diverse circle of friends in international politics to build an
anonymous action group, a 'transnational security organization, and
to widen its field of operations. Crozier worked with the CIA for
years. One has to assume, therefore, that they are fully aware of
his activities. He has extensive connections with members, or more
accurately, former members, of the most important western security
and intelligence services..."
What the group can do:
provision of contributions by
certain well-known journalists in Britain, the US and other
access to television
creation of a lobby in influential
circles directly or indirectly through middlemen whether they
are informed of this or not
organization of public
demonstrations in particular areas on themes to be decided and
the involvement of the main
intelligence and security agencies both as information sources
and as recipients for information in these institutions
undercover financial transactions
for political aims.
What the group can do if financing is
Conduct international campaigns
aiming to discredit hostile personalities or events.
Creation of a (private) intelligence
service specialising according to a selective point of view.
The establishment of offices under
suitable cover each run by a co-ordinator from the central
office. Current plans cover London, Washington, Paris, Munich
As one can imagine, the secrecy surrounding Le
Cercle is not that much of a mystery, as most people would disapprove of a
secret group consisting of persons tied to questionable corporate, political
and religious interests, that is involved in political manipulation. More
from Langemann (63):
Amongst other points in the (Crozier) planning paper are:
Specific Aims within this framework are to
affect a change of government in
1.the United Kingdom - accomplished.
2.In West Germany to defend freedom of trade and movement and oppose
all forms of subversion including terrorism ..
"On 5 and 6/1 1980 members of the
Circle met in Zurich to discuss executive measures..."
The main things discussed were:
1. (a) international promotion of the
Minister President (Strauss) in international publications
2. (b) influencing of the situation in Rhodesia and South Africa
following a European Conservative guideline and
3. (c) the establishment of a powerful directional radio station
aiming at the Islamic region and including the border populations of
the Soviet Union.
"As far as can be judged by
outsiders Crozier has initiated with his group the project
'Victory for Strauss' using the tactics applied in Great
Britain, of major themes such as the communist, extremist
subversion of government parties and trade unions, KGB
manipulation of terrorism and damage to internal security."
Langemann presents a list of conspiracies which
we know more about these days. Let's take a more in depth look into each of
them and see who was involved specifically.
THE CHANGE OF GOVERNMENT in the United Kingdom refers to the election of
Margaret Thatcher in 1979 in which Crozier's Shield, a covert advisory
committee, played a crucial role (64).
The initial idea for Shield came from
MI6 agent Sir
Stephen Haskings, a friend of Crozier who had formerly been a
SAS soldier and SOE officer.
Crozier put together Thatcher's election
campaign by adopting Jean Violet's Psychological Action program, a technique
to find quick, short answers to three basic questions:
completely convinced Thatcher about the severe threat of domestic communist
After Crozier and Haskings handed her their paper 'The
diabolical nature of the Communist conspiracy', Thatcher's reaction was,
"I've read every word and I'm shattered. What should we do?"
Harry Sporborg and Cercle member Nicholas Elliot were the other two members of
inner circle of Shield.
Sporborg worked at Hambros Bank and used to be a
deputy head of the SOE during WWII. Elliot was a former MI6 agent who
specialized in sabotage and unconventional warfare. He also had been a
director of Lonrho.
Shield was hardly a new phenomenon, and its success can actually be seen as
the culmination of twenty years of manipulation by the British far-right to
get a prime minister elected they truly desired. This far-right group, which
was, and is, closely affiliated with the British establishment, had already
been meddling a great deal in Britain's domestic politics since the election
of Harold Wilson as prime minister in 1964.
Although the aristocrats,
centered around the royal court, have never embraced Labour, the serious
economic recession of the late 1960s and early 1970s caused so much concern
that many individuals within these circles actually began planning a coup.
It started with a dirty tricks campaign against Wilson, mainly orchestrated
by rogue elements within MI5 and MI6 and with overseas support of CIA head
James Jesus Angleton.
During his two terms in office, and especially during
his second term from 1974 to 1976, Wilson was smeared with accusations that
he was a homosexual, a supporter of the IRA, and that he was a KGB agent.
Private armies and action groups were set up to take over essential services
in case the country broke down. In March 1976, Wilson unexpectedly decided
to step down.
Publicly he claimed that he was physically and mentally
exhausted, but also that this is what he had always planned to do at age 60.
Privately he explained that "business groups and other anti-democratic
agencies", and also pointing to a rogue element in MI5, had made it
absolutely impossible for him to run the country (66).
Baroness Marcia Falkender, supported his statements.
"MI5 were making a mockery out of us. Those
people ought to be exposed for what they really are... but you can't
identify them. We could be sitting in a room and you might be MI5 and I
wouldn't know. Or I might have have been all these years and you
wouldn't know." (67)
The group that was working to oust Wilson
was the same group that got Thatcher elected. Lord Julian Amery, one
time head of Le Cercle, was a good friend to both David Stirling and
General Walter Walker, respectively the third and fourth person from the
Crozier, another Cercle head, was involved in spreading KGB rumors
about Wilson and later wrote Thatcher's election strategy.
Interestingly, two men in the anti-Wilson plot were assassinated in
1979; Airey Neave (5th from left) in March and Earl Mountbatten (2nd
from left) in August.
Among the people named that have been involved
in the plot to get rid of Wilson were
SAS founder David Stirling
Goldsmith (known Cercle associate) the 7th Earl of Lucan
Sir Val Duncan
(chair of Rio Tinto Zinc; 1001 Club; Edmund de Rothschild associate)
Harmsworth King (nephew Lord Northcliffe; MI5 agent; Bank of England)
George Kennedy Young (ex-deputy director MI6; helped to overthrow Mossadeq;
Monday Club; Kleinwort Benson; set up Tory Action; set up civilian
armed resistance cells)
Airey Neave (MI6/MI5 insider; set up Tory Action; set up
civilian armed resistance cells)
Army General Sir Walter Walker (set up
private armies and Civil Assistance/Unison)
Major Alexander Greenwood (set
up private armies) the 4th Earl of Cromartie (WWII commander)
Mountbatten of Burma (uncle of Prince Philip; would have headed the
the Queen Mother
Angleton, a Knight of Malta,
provided assistance from across the Atlantic (68).
Besides Brian Crozier, who was aware of the planned coup and actively
supported it with his anti-communist lectures to military officers (69), a
few other Cercle members have also played a supplementary role in the coup
against Wilson and Labour in general.
The president of Le Cercle after
Crozier, Julian Amery, was a good friend of General Walter Walker and wrote
the foreword of Walker's book 'The Next Domino'. Amery also was a member and
later patron of the Conservative Monday Club, a center of anti-Labour
activity. Additionally, Cercle member Anthony Cavendish was a member of the
Unison Committee for Action, one of the anti-Labour action groups set up by
George Kennedy Young and General Walter Walker (70). Cavendish also worked
with James Goldsmith and was on good terms with Julian Amery.
Robert Moss was a protégé of Brian Crozier and helped him internationally to
spread the word of communist subversion.
In 1975, Moss and Crozier, together
with Viscount De L'Isle (Knight of the Garter; Privy Council) and others,
were co-founders of the National Association for Freedom (NAFF), an anti-Labour
and anti-Wilson pressure group that acted as a follow-up of GB 75 and the
later Civil Assistance/Unison. Quite a number of NAFF members would find
their way to prominent political positions under Thatcher (71).
Even after Wilson was ousted in 1976, many right-wing individuals were still
not content with the new Labour prime minister James Callaghan. Only after
three more years of underground politicking they were able to maneuver the
hard-right Conservative Thatcher into office.
THE PROMOTION OF STRAUSS is a reference to articles written by Brian Crozier,
his associate James Goldsmith, and others to improve the image of Franz
Josef Strauss within and outside Germany. They denounced all the accusations
against Strauss as KGB propaganda, again with testimonies from defectors of
Czech intelligence, like they used in their campaign against Wilson (72).
Although Strauss never made the Chancellorship, he was a well known German
politician, and in terms of political convictions somewhere to the right of
His home base was the hard-right Roman Catholic Christian
Social Union of Bavaria (CSU), together with his co-Cercle friends Otto von
Habsburg, Count Hans Huyn, and Alois Mertes.
Strauss, feeling Napoleon
He went to the Bohemian Grove in 1962 and gave a speech there (73).
long career, riddled with numerous scandals, he died in 1988 while on a
hunting trip with Prince Johannes von Thurn und Taxis. More scandals
followed after his death, some involving his son.
These Cercle friends of Strauss are interesting people.
Otto von Habsburg,
who claimed his political views on Europe were very close to those of
Strauss (74), is head of the Paneuropa Union (the second head since its
founding in 1922), where he followed up the well known Count Richard
Cercle founder Otto Habsburg
The twelve stars on the
European flag literally are a reference to the Virgin Mary and her halo of
Until recently, that claim
could also be found in an introduction article on the Paneuropa website.
Anno 2006, Otto is an advisor to the
Coundenhove-Kalergi Foundation, together with Count Hans Huyn, Jakob
Coudenhove-Kalergi (nephew of Richard, the founder of the Paneuropa Union),
Prince Carlo della Torre e Tasso (Italian branch of the Thurn und Taxis
family), and Max Turnauer (ambassador of the Order of Malta in
Nikolaus von Liechtenstein, the younger brother of Hans-Adam
II, is an executive member of the the Coundenhove-Kalergi Foundation (75).
The Paneuropa Union has a vast network of underground political
organizations all over Europe, which include or included the European Centre
of Documentation and Information, Mouvement d'Action pour l'Union de
l'Europe, the Académie Européenne de Sciences Politiques, Ordre du Rouvre,
the Institut Européen pour la Developpement, Cercle des Nations (renamed to
Cercle de Lorraine and a much broader membership these days), and the Mont
The amount of ties to the Vatican within these
institutions, and in particular to Opus Dei and the Sovereign Military Order
of Malta, is absolutely staggering. Otto von Habsburg is closely associated
with both organizations, not to mention his own Order of the Golden Fleece.
Count Huyn is a German aristocrat, and like Otto von Habsburg and Richard
Coudenhove-Kalergi, descended from a prominent Austro-Hungarian family. His
wife is a descendant of Archduchess Maria Theresia of Austria (1717-1780),
the first and only female head of the Habsburg dynasty. Huyn was a foreign
policy advisor to his friend Franz-Josef Strauss from 1971 to 1976.
In 1976, Huyn became a long time member of the Bundestag himself and would serve on
many government committees.
He would also write quite a number of books on
Soviet strategy and occasionally speak out in favor of the placement of
nuclear weapons in Germany or participation in the Star Wars program,
without any regards for public opinion.
Count Hans Huyn
Crozier acknowledges in his book that Count Huyn was one of three primary
intelligence sources in Germany for his 61 intelligence group (more about
that later). Huyn might have a long Cercle history behind him, because he
was involved in overseeing the 1963 Treaty of Elisée in which Cercle founder
Jean Violet played such a crucial role.
As a devout Catholic, Huyn used to
head the German department of the Catholic organization Aid to the Church in
THE STORY OF RHODESIA and South Africa being manipulated by British
Conservative politics will often produce the same names as those involved in
ousting Harold Wilson.
In the late 19th century, the country later known as Southern Rhodesia was
taken over through military force by the British South Africa Company (BSAC),
founded by Cecil Rhodes (from which the name "Rhodesia" is derived). BSAC
was mirrored on the British East-India Company. In 1953, after calls for
independence, Southern Rhodesia became part of the Central African
Federation (CAF), which also included Northern Rhodesia and Nyasaland.
1965, one year after the CAF had been dissolved and Northern Rhodesia had
become the independent Zambia, the White minority government in Southern
Rhodesia unilaterally declared itself independent from Britain. This way
they hoped to stop any further reforms that would result in black majority
Initially, the White minority government did recognize the Queen of
England although she would (and could) never accept the title "Queen of
Two of the biggest supporters of the White minority government at the time
were Cercle members Julian Amery and Lord Robert Cecil, today the 7th Marquess of Salisbury
(76). From 1961 to 1981, Robert Cecil's father and
grandfather presided over the Conservative Monday Club, a center of
post-WWII imperialism (and other major supporters of the White minority
government). Julian Amery was a member of the club.
The 7th Marquess of
Salisbury was a good friend of Julian Amery and their families have been
involved with each other since the early 20th century. Although Julian's
father was a very important individual, working closely with the Rothschilds
in building up the state of Israel, the Amery family pales in comparison
with the historical influence of the Cecil family.
There are only one or two
dynastic families that might compete in terms of influence they had on
British affairs since the 16th century. In fact, under Queen Elizabeth I
(1533-1603), the Cecils are credited with having created the first known
large scale spy network in Britain and Europe. It's possible however that
they received some inspiration from Venice at the time.
Another important supporter of the racist illegal government in Rhodesia was
Lonrho, a giant Pan-African raw materials corporation headed by reported
Cercle-associate Tiny Rowland. Cercle member and MI6 agent Nicholas Elliot
was a director of the company in the 1970s, although there seems to have
been some friction with the Rowland camp (77).
Ian Smith, head of the racist
government in Rhodesia, had once helped Rowland to start up his mining
business in Africa (78). After that Rowland had grown to become one of the
most controversial figures ever to walk around on that continent. He has
been accused of bribing numerous officials and working with British
intelligence in supporting certain favorable regimes, one of them being UNITA in Angola (79).
Together with an equally controversial Adnan Khashoggi,
he was involved in selling top-quality military equipment to Libya and
supplying it with mercenaries to build up its own special forces capability
(80). Rowland used to be a member of John Aspinall's Clermont gambling club
in the 1960s, together with Lord Lucan, and the earlier mentioned Sir James
Goldsmith and SAS founder David Stirling (81).
This group wanted to get rid
of Wilson the day he set foot in the prime minister's office. They also
loathed James Callaghan, the Labour follow-up of Wilson. Rowland, Lucan, and
Aspinall were fascists (82). Sir James Goldsmith, the close associate of
Brian Crozier, and David Stirling, a close private warfare buddy of Julian
Amery (83) whose (Stirling's) niece married the 7th Marquess of Salisbury,
were running the mercenary firm KAS Enterprises.
Officially, KAS was hired
to protect elephants and rhinos in southern Africa from poachers.
accusations arose that the firm was fighting the anti-apartheid movement,
reportedly leaving 1,5 million dead. Most details about Operation Lock, as
it was called, have been suppressed (84).
Conrad Gerber is another Cercle member with a connection to this region. He
worked as an economist in the white minority government of Rhodesia in the
1970s, where he was involved in circumventing international sanctions to
purchase oil for his country. He did this with controversial partners as
John Deuss and Ted Shackley, the latter becoming one of his closest friends.
So close, that Gerber was even present at Shackley's deathbed (85).
According to drug lord Khun Sa, Shackley was in charge of Golden Triangle
opium exports to the United States from 1965 to 1975 (86). Research into the Nugan Hand Bank and its follow-up Bishop, Baldwin, Rewald, Dillingham and
Wong (BBRDW) seems to confirm that (87).
Besides that, Shackley is credited
with having operated a "Secret Team" of assassins, drug traffickers, and
arms salesman, which consisted of General John Singlaub, Thomas Clines, Carl
Jenkins, David Morales, Raphael Quintero, Felix Rodriguez, Edwin Wilson,
Richard Armitage and likely a few others. After sanctions were lifted
against Rhodesia in 1980, Gerber set up the very successful Petro-Logistics,
which acts as a private intelligence group aimed at penetrating OPEC's oil
The International Energy Agency (IEA) considers Petro-Logistics one
of its most important sources, if not the most important source, when making
oil production and reserves forecasts (88).
Present: Anthony and
Andrew Cavendish, Paul Channon, Sir Erik Bennett, General Schwarzkopf, and
LANGEMANN'S LAST POINT, aiming directional radio
stations at Islamic regions bordering the Soviet Union, has become a very
familiar subject these days.
The Soviet Union invaded Afghanistan in
December 1979, so the Cercle having these discussions less than a month
after is something that could have been expected. Several members of the
Cercle played a prominent role in the Afghan war.
Zbigniew Brzezinski, National Security advisor to Carter, claimed
that he and Carter actually had provoked the Afghan war by clandestinely
supporting the opponents of the pro-Soviet regime in Kabul, six months
before the invasion of the Soviet Union (89). Ever since Putin came into
office, Brzezinski and his son Mark restarted their war with Russia.
Brzezinski is known to have visited Le Cercle at some point.
In 1986 CIA director William Casey, a member of Le Cercle and a
Malta, began organizing a large scale anti-Soviet resistance operation in
Afghanistan, which would last until the end of the war in 1988-1989 (90).
His Saudi counterpart, Prince Turki Al-Faisal, another member of Le Cercle,
financed a large portion of this operation (91). The BCCI has been named as
a main conduit for all these undercover transactions. It was set up by Agha
Hasan Abedi, whose membership in the 1001 Club indicates he was accepted by
the British aristocracy (92).
The by now well known Cercle president Julian
Amery was an advisor to the BCCI in the 1980s (93).
Back to Contents
In the early 1970s the CIA was heavily criticized for its role in the
Vietnam War and Watergate.
Reporters and investigating committees began
looking into the agency and soon plenty of stories emerged about domestic
spying, infiltration of the media, subversion of foreign governments,
assassinating foreign leaders, and large scale experiments with mind
control. Some revelations were highlighted more prominently than others.
Additional doubts were cast on the CIA 's role in the assassination of John
In the midst of all these reports, measures were taken to reduce
the autonomy of the CIA. The ban on domestic spying was re-enforced while
Congress and the Senate received far more influence over the appointment of
CIA officials and the distribution of the CIA's budget. They requested
numerous briefings and decided which clandestine operations were or weren't
allowed. The CIA was not allowed anymore to subvert any foreign government
or assassinate any leader it felt like. Authorization from Congress became
Furthermore, it was also largely prohibited from working with
questionable characters to gather intelligence or aid in their coups.
Why people became skeptical
of the CIA. A few newspaper clippings from 1973 to 1979.
This didn't fall well with many intelligence
chiefs and associates like Brian Crozier.
They claimed the CIA's (human)
intelligence gathering and intervention capabilities had been destroyed
almost completely; and even more so after Admiral Stansfield Turner in 1977
started to force half of the CIA's anti-Soviet staff into retirement.
Crozier and his Cercle-associates went looking for a solution and came up
with the idea to establish a transnational secret intelligence agency of
For security reasons this group initially didn't have a name, but
within a few months it became known to insiders as The 61 (or more correct,
Its purpose, according to Crozier:
"... a Private Sector Operational
Intelligence agency, beholden to no government, but at the disposal of
allied or friendly governments... Our main concerns would be:
To provide reliable intelligence in
areas which governments were barred from investigating, either
through legislation (as in the US) or because political
circumstances made such inquiries difficult or potentially
To conduct secret counter-subversion
operations in any country in which such actions were deemed
It was agreed that no outsiders should be
made aware of the existence of this organization, except if, in the
judgment of one of us, the person was deemed a suitable candidate for
It is often claimed that the privatization of
intelligence was the result of increased Congressional oversight, which is
true to a large degree.
However, private intelligence organizations like
Le Cercle, Antoine Bonnemaison's Centre, and probably quite a number of other
organizations already existed before the CIA oversight crisis began.
Stay Behind networks and the combined Navy-CIA Task Force 157 also had
(virtually) no Congressional oversight.
Members of The 61, in existence from 1977 to 1988, came from England,
France, Germany, Czechoslovakia, South Africa, the United States, and likely
some other countries. It forged links with Prince Turki of Saudi Arabia and
the Shah of Iran. At least on some occasions, The 61 provided intelligence
to the Pope. According to Crozier, there only was some "minor overlapping"
between the Cercle and The 61.
This seems to be misleading, as many of the
key individuals of Le Cercle were part of The 61, including Brian Crozier,
Jean Violet, Georges Albertini, Count Huyn, and General Stilwell. Others in
the know were Nicholas Elliot, Robert Moss, William Wilson, General Fraser,
and probably quite a number of others (95).
Crozier told us more about the meeting that
established The 61:
"The question was whether something could be
done in the private sector - not only in Britain, but in the United
States and other countries of the Western Alliance. A few of us had been
exchanging views, and decided that action was indeed possible.
the initiative by convening a very small and very secret meeting in
London. We met in the luxurious executive suite of a leading City of
London bank on the morning of Sunday 13 February 1977. Our host, a
leading figure in the bank, took the chair. Three of us were British,
four were American, with one German. Ill health prevented a French
associate from attending; Jean Violet was with us in spirit.
Apart from the banker and myself, the other Briton was Nicholas Elliott.
The German was a very active member of the Bundestag, whose career had
started in diplomacy. He had a very wide understanding of Soviet
strategy, on which he wrote several first rate books.
The Americans included two able and diligent Congressional staffers, and
the Viennese-born representative of a big Belgian company. Also there
was the remarkable General Vernon ('Dick') Walters, recently retired as
Deputy Director of Central Intelligence..." (96)
The first questions many people will ask is
which bank Crozier is talking about and who that chairman was.
doesn't give these answers, but there seem to be only a few possibilities.
One candidate is Cercle member Sir Peter Tennant of Barclays (one of the
more aristocratic banks with historically many members of the Pilgrims
Society, the 1001 Club, and the Order of St. John on its board), which would
make all three of the British participants leading members of Le Cercle.
Tennant's name appears sixty pages further in Crozier's book as one of the
chairmen of Cercle sessions, but he gives zero details about the rest of
this person's life. However, in 1977 Tennant was a director and industrial
advisor to Barclays Bank, which used to be located in the City of London,
near the Bank of England.
He had been a long time trade representative of
the City of London, the small historical financial district in central
However, there's another possibility, which might be more likely. At the
start of World War II, Tennant had been recruited into Special Operations
Executive (SOE) by Colonel Sir Charles Hambro, who would become head of the
SOE in 1942.
Sir Charles Hambro was chairman of Hambros Bank (another very
aristocratic bank, represented in the Pilgrims Society and the 1001 Club)
and a very good friend of both Winston Churchill and the Wallenberg family.
Interestingly, Sir Hambro's deputy in the SOE, Henry "Harry" Sporborg, ended
up in the small inner circle committee of Crozier's Shield.
And according to Crozier, the Shield Committee, including himself, Sir Harry, and Nicholas
Elliot met "in the boardroom of a City bank" (97) in mid 1978. There are
some great parallels here with the meeting to establish The 61 only a year
earlier. Elliot and Crozier were also present at that meeting, which also
took place in a City bank.
Is it possible that Sir Harry was a "leading
figure" in a City bank? It turns out that's actually a very tough question.
Sir Harry was a long time director of Hambros Bank until about 1973, but
certainly remained closely involved with Hambros until at least 1977 by
heading one of its subsidiaries. His son Christopher had also come to
Hambros in 1962 and was a director in the 1970s and beyond.
some talk that Sir Harry was a post-WWII MI6 agent. He has also been named a
founding trustee of the Sue Ryder Foundation in the 1950s, together with MI6
agent Airey Neave, the earlier discussed anti-communist crusader who, like
Shield, was closely involved in bringing Thatcher to power.
however, is located at Tower Hill, officially just outside the City. And
together with lacking details of Sir Harry's involvement with Hambros in
1978, this is what makes identifying the chairman of the 61 meeting, and the
bank it was held in, impossible at this moment. But maybe it would be more
accurate anyway to say that Shield and The 61 were founded by veterans of
the SOE, MI6 and the CIA.
Most of the other participants that helped to establish The 61 remain
anonymous, although one can speculate about some of the names. The German
delegate almost certainly is the aristocratic Cercle member Count Hans Huyn,
who is known to have become an important member of The 61 (98). His
background fits perfectly and has been discussed earlier. More information
about this person can be found in the
membership list attached to this
Fortunately, Crozier gives us the name of General Vernon Walters, who seems
to have represented the US intelligence faction that was very upset with the
changes in CIA oversight. Walters was a bit of a mystery man. Although one
of the most important behind- the-scenes players in the post-WWII world, not
a whole lot of research has been done on him.
With very little official education, Walters had become fluent in English,
German, French, Spanish, Portuguese, Italian, Russian, and Chinese.
to work for Army Intelligence in 1941 and like Cercle member Kissinger, he
became a protégé of Fritz Kraemer in the post-war period.
Walters, co founder of The
61, and later Cercle participant Richard Nixon, 1958.
Noriega would be one of
Walter's house guests in the 1970s.
Bush Sr. and Cercle member W.
Casey would also invite Noriega.
After the war he served for a while as an aide
to Pilgrims Society member Averell Harriman, who, for example, co-founded
the Psychological Strategy Board.
In 1951 Walters became involved in setting
up and running NATO's SHAPE headquarters in Paris. He was an aide and
interpreter to Truman, Eisenhower, Kennedy, and Nixon, and provided Henry
Kissinger's security in secret diplomatic missions. He was deputy director
of the CIA from 1972 to 1976 under Richard Helms and George Bush.
left the CIA to become a private consultant until 1982 when he joined the
Reagan administration as Ambassador at Large. He was sent all over the
world. From 1989 to 1991 he was the US Ambassador to the UN. After that, at
the time the Berlin wall came down, he was Ambassador to West-Germany.
Walters has attended many Pan American conferences.
But there is more to General Walters. Like many leading members of Le Cercle,
he was close to the Vatican interests.
He was educated by the Jesuits at Stonyhurst College in England and later became a member of the
Military Order of Malta (99), giving him instant access to the
Vatican at all times. His participation in setting up The 61 seems to
substantiate reports about his involvement in countering communist
subversion in Europe and other parts of the globe, not the least in Italy
It has also been reported that South African
intelligence named Walters as a key plotter in the JFK assassination
Although not widely published, Walters was a military attaché
in Rome in 1963 where he worked with CIA station chief William K. Harvey in
countering the massive communist and socialist influences in that country
(which brought him into conflict with Kennedy; Harvey had his own, but
related grudges against Kennedy, and especially his brother Robert)
The Gladio network Walters and Harvey controlled
was crucial in this effort. Quite a bit of evidence has surfaced to show
that Harvey, his protégé Ted Shackley, and their pro-Vietnam, anti-Castro
CIA gang, which included David Atlee Philips, together with mafia partners
Johnny Roselli, Sam Giancana, Charles Nicoletti, Carlos Marcello, Santo
Trafficanto, and Jimmy Hoffa were some of the key plotters and executers in
the JFK assassination (103).
The problems in Europe with the communists and
socialists, and especially in Rome at the time, will probably explain the
(alleged) role of Permindex members in the JFK assassination some day.
Ironically, if the truth ever came out on the
assassination, together with the explanation that Kennedy not only allowed
the communists to remain in power in Cuba, but also endorsed the "communo-socialist"
takeover of Italy and soon other parts of Europe, quite a number of people
might actually sympathize with the plotters, at least to a certain degree.
James Files, former hitman working for the
Chicago mafia under Charles Nicolette. Both of these men allegedly were
shooters in the JFK assassination.
"When it comes to government and
underhanded work, the mob, they're kindergarten. They're
kindergarten. I might upset a lot of people in the family saying
that, but they're kindergarten when it comes to working with the
government; they are the goldfish in the shark pond."
That is, until the full interaction between
government and the mafia becomes known.
Besides having been a co-founder of Crozier's 61, Walters also was a good
friend of French intelligence chief Alexandre de Marenches (104),
who by 1976 had set up a secret private intelligence network of his own, the
Safari Club. The Safari Club's network included the Shah of Iran, Saddam
Hussein of Iraq, Anwar Sadat of Egypt, Ashraf Marwan of Egyptian
intelligence, and Kamal Adham of Saudi intelligence (105).
Count de Marenches was the biggest rival of Jean
Violet within the SDECE, but because he was part of the same hard-right
intelligence network he counted many of the same friends and associates,
including Franz-Josef Strauss (106), William Casey (107),
and Baron de Bonvoisin (108).
All of these individuals have been named as
members of Opus Dei or the Knights of Malta.
Back to Contents
More on the American Cercle
In the late 1980s Iran-Contra whistleblower Gene Wheaton expanded on what
General Walters and his associates had been doing since the the 1960s.
Wheaton had been a former police officer, military criminal investigator,
and security contractor.
He also used to be a counter-terrorism
consultant for the Rockwell Corporation, the Saudi Royal Family, and the
Shah of Iran, among other things. All this was before he was brought into
the "inner circle", which turned out to consist of people he didn't want
anything to do with.
In 2002 Wheaton recalled:
"In the late 70s, in fact, after Gerry Ford
lost the election in ’76 to Jimmy Carter, and then these guys became
exposed by Stansfield Turner and crowd for whatever reason... there
were different factions involved in all this stuff, and power plays...
Ted Shackley and Vernon Walters and Frank Carlucci and Ving West and a
group of these guys used to have park-bench meetings in the late 70s in
McClean, Virginia so nobody could overhear their conversations.
They basically said,
"With our expertise at
placing dictators in power," I’m almost quoting verbatim one of their
comments, "why don’t we treat the United States like the world’s biggest
banana republic and take it over?"
And the first thing they had to do
was to get their man in the White House, and that was George Bush..."
We've already seen that Shackley and especially
Walters had become associated with Cercle activities around this same time.
Carlucci also, who stands accused of involvement in the 1975 "anti-communosocialist"
coup in Portugal of General Antonio de Spinola. He reportedly acted as an
intermediary between Henry Kissinger and de Spinola, both members of Le
Cercle, and gave the go-ahead for de Spinola's March 1975 coup (which
ultimately failed) (110).
Although usually very much understated, Spinola
was a wealthy aristocratic fascist connected to the most powerful business
monopolies in Portugal and its colonies. Through the CIA he worked with the
Portuguese Stay Behind units, set up by fascist terrorists, and had begun
implementing a regional strategy of tension (111).
When Crozier visited the CIA and the White House he met with some of the
people that were part of the rogue group described above by Wheaton. In the
Carter administration, of which he obviously was extremely critical, he was
received by national security advisor Zbigniew Brzezinski and secretary of
defense James Schlesinger. In the Reagan administration he met with General
Walters, Robert McFarlane, Richard Pipes, Richard V. Allen, Kenneth
deGraffenreid, William Casey, and Oliver North.
He regularly met with Sven
Kraemer, the son of Fritz Kraemer, and really liked Admiral John Poindexter,
who recently became notorious for heading DARPA's Total Information
Awareness Office (the organization with the charming logo of a pyramid and
eye watching over the world) (112). Furthermore, Crozier has worked with
Cercle member Donald Jameson (113), a top CIA specialist on the Soviet Union
who set up the neocon Jamestown Foundation that handled Soviet Bloc
Donald, who in his earlier career had crossed paths
Philip Corso (114) and the
remote viewing projects
(115), became a
business associate of Ted Shackley (116), probably around the time he became
involved with one of Crozier's research projects. Crozier also counted
Cercle member General Richard Stilwell among his personal friends (117).
Oliver North and Richard Stilwell have been named as insiders to the CIA
drug trade to fund covert operations. Crozier's Cercle associates William
Colby and William Casey were others (118).
During the time Crozier visited
these Reagan officials (except Colby), Stilwell was part of the secretive
Special Operations Planning and Advisory Group (SOPAG), which included among
its 11 members Air Force Generals Richard Secord and Leroy Manor (119), both
named as insiders of CIA drug trade (120).
Stilwell's group had full access
to Top Secret materials and quietly advised secretary of defense Caspar
Weinberger (soon a Pilgrims Society executive) and assistant secretary of
defense Richard Armitage, who was named as a partner of Ted Shackley in CIA
drugs from the Golden Triangle (121).
SOPAG was the Pentagon's top group in
worldwide counterinsurgency and special operations.
In his biography Crozier was "sorry to say" that North did not take him into
his confidence about Casey's Iran Contra scheme (122). Of course, as the
mainstream media, Crozier only refers to the hostage and arms aspects of the
affair. The many accusations that Contras were paying for their guns with
disproportionate amounts of cocaine, which were shipped to the United
States, is conveniently left out.
But one is left to wonder if Crozier
really was that naive, judging by an almost hilarious article he wrote in
January of 1990.
"Estevez revealed that Cuba had built up a
multi-million-dollar drug trafficking network, with thousands of agents
in the United States. He said Fidel Castro was personally involved in
drug trafficking, with the aim of promoting violent crime, addiction and
corruption in North America, while simultaneously financing terrorism in
Latin America: a perfect definition of "narco-terrorism''...
living in Cuba with the full assistance of Fidel Castro. Another
fugitive, the American financier Robert Vesco [1001 Club], was believed
to be Escobar's number two...
On February 10, 1988, Blandon [Medellin
cartel baron] testified before a Senate sub-committee that Castro and
Noriega were working together to promote "drug-financed guerrilla
movements throughout Latin America''..." (123)
What Crozier did here, right after the Iran
Contra investigations, is to take the largely unreported accusations against
his US associates and blame them solely on communist Cuba.
It is entirely
possible that Crozier's accusations are true, but the few million dollars of
Castro pales in comparison with the hundreds of billions we're talking about
in CIA (and other agencies) drug money. In fact, in the court papers Crozier
is using to blame Castro, there also are plenty of testimonies about Noriega
being CIA during the 1970s and 1980s, and that he had several meetings with
George Bush, Cercle member William Casey, and other CIA directors (124).
Noriega, a product of the School of the Americas, actually was the
middle-man between Escobar's Medellin Cartel and the CIA.
from people involved in these operations tell the same story, and an awful
lot of them had to pay with their lives for their courage to come forward.
The death and general persecution rate among these whistleblowers has been
So, Crozier's press reports not only seems to be one
sided, at times they act as pure disinformation.
Some known US Cercle
participants. Colby was Opus Dei; Casey and Feulner Knights of Malta.
Brzezinski worked closely
with the Knights in Americares, and like Kissinger, is close to the
Speaking of disinformation (or cooking
information), one of Crozier's best friends since the 1980s is Richard Perle
(125), who is largely responsible for selling the public the 2003 invasion
To accomplish this he even promoted the alleged meeting between
Mohammed Atta and Iraqi agents as a "well-documented" fact, which absolutely
wasn't the case.
If confirmed, which is probably never going to happen, that
would be the only link between the 9/11 hijackers and Saddam Hussein.
Ironically, this questionable intelligence report was received (and later
disputed) through Czech intelligence, earlier used by the anti-Wilson and
pro-Strauss crowd in the 1970s and early 1980s. Neoconservatives as William
Safire, James Woolsey and William Kristol also used the Czech intelligence
report to promote a war against Iraq (126).
Since about the time that Crozier became a leading member in the mid to late
1970s, Le Cercle seems to have forged closer links with the more hard-right
elements in the US government (127).
Besides the Reagan and Nixon
administrations, Cercle members were involved with institutions as:
the Heritage Foundation
the United States Global
the Committee on Present Danger
the Center for Strategic
and International Studies (CSIS)
the Committee on Present Danger
the Victims of Communism Memorial
All these groups were interwoven with the World
Anti-Communist League and religious organizations as the Knights of Malta
and the Moonies.
Seemingly one of the closest associates of mainly the British Cercle members
was CIA officer Ray Cline:
OSS 1943-1946 and worked in the Far-East with
Paul Helliwell and Gen. Singlaub
good friend of Chiang Kai-shek's son
up the Asian People's Anti-Communist League (APACL) in Taiwan and South
Korea in 1955-1956
CIA station chief in Taiwan 1958-1962
CIA station chief in Bonn 1966-1969 where he oversaw the
local Gladio forces
confirmed the authenticity of FM 30-31A & B,
instruction manuals of the DIA which included false flag terrorist actions
that were to be blamed on the USSR
director Department of State's Bureau
Intelligence and Research 1969-1973
director world power studies at
Georgetown's CSIS 1973-1986
co-founder of the WACL with Gen. Singlaub
representative of CAUSA, founded by Moonie Col. Bo Hi Pak
Cline is never
mentioned in Crozier's biography even though both were involved in two very
important organizations: the Jonathan Institute and the Foreign Affairs
Research Institute (FARI), of which, interestingly, Crozier also forgets to
mention his involvement.
He also does not discuss the United States Global
Strategy Council (USGSC), which was founded in the same period and headed by
Ray Cline for most of its existence. The USGSC counted Cercle members
General Richard Stilwell (128) and William Colby among the earliest members
and there's probably more overlap (129).
Let's take a look at these three
The Washington-based U.S. Global Strategy Council (USGSC) existed from 1981
to about 1995 and was a think tank focused on setting coherent long range
strategic goals for the United States. Clearly a bastion of America's
permanent government, it mainly focused on worldwide anti-communist
subversion. It also pushed for the development of non-lethal weaponry (130)
and the costly Stars Wars program.
Star Wars was later accused of having
served as a bogus front operation through which vast amounts of funds were
diverted (131) into a variety of black programs. Interestingly,
electromagnetic and psychotronic weapons are the top suspects these black
programs allegedly dealt with (132).
The USGSC was part of the whole hawkish (or "total war") neoconservative
movement that came to the forefront with Reagan and remained prominent with
Bush, Sr. It temporarily left the White House with the election of Clinton
and then came back in full force with the Bush, Jr. administration in 2000.
The whole idea of a global war on terror, including the use of pre-emptive
strikes, goes back to ideas that were proposed by this neocon group in the
late 1970s and early 1980s.
George Shultz is the most crucial player from
the American side, which obviously is the most important. However, he had
allies in other parts of the world, including leading Israeli politicians
from both Likud and Labour, fascist terrorists from France, and also Cercle
president Brian Crozier and his clique in Britain.
They came together at two
conferences about international terrorism sponsored by the Jonathan
Institute, an Israeli think tank named after the brother of Netanyahu. It
was a Mossad front, according to former SAS/MI5 agent Colin Wallace (133).
The first meeting was in June 1979. Crozier and his Cercle sidekick Robert
Moss were two of the speakers at this conference of which the purpose was to
blame all international terrorism on the USSR. Richard Pipes, the later
associate of Crozier at the White House, also spoke at the conference.
Cline and George H.W. Bush of the CIA were there, just as retired General
George J. Keegan who had recently stepped down as head of Air Force
Intelligence. OAS terrorist Jacques Soustelle attended, together with
Benjamin Netanyahu, Jack Kemp, and a whole range of international
journalists who promoted the view that the USSR was behind worldwide
The second Jonathan Institute's conference on terrorism, held in 1984, was
even more influential as Reagan was now in power. Netanyahu, George Shultz,
and Douglas Feith were said to have organized this second conference (135).
Feith worked under Crozier's friend Richard Perle at the time. The policies
set then, re-emerged stronger than ever almost 20 years later, after 9/11.
George Shultz (Bechtel executive; secretary of state at the time; Bohemian
Grove camp Mandalay; National Security Planning Group; chair advisory
council J.P. Morgan Chase; ran Reagan's election campaign; largely put
together the George Bush Jr. administration), one of the biggest movers and
shakers in the neoconservative movement, gave the opening speech in which he
"pre- emptive actions by Western democracies may be necessary
to counter the Soviet Union and other nations that... have banded together
in an international "league of terror."" (136)
Caspar Weinberger (also from
Bechtel; Defense Secretary at that time; National Security Planning Group;
later Pilgrims Executive; member Bohemian Grove camp Mandalay), Jeane
Kirkpatrick (co-chair USGSC), and Yitzhak Rabin (Labour prime minister) also
spoke at the conference backing the claim that terrorism had spun out of
control and that the Soviet Union was the cause of that.
The only thing that
was disagreed upon was if this movement supporting a global war on both
terror and the USSR should be incorporated within the United Nations or not
Jacques Soustelle had become a board member of the Jonathan Institute
by then (138), together with Shimon Peres (Labour prime minister) and
Menachem Begin (Likud prime minister) (139).
Crozier's close associate Lord
minister in the Foreign and Commonwealth Office 1964-1970
Privy Council since 1964
Pilgrims Society executive since 1979
Conservative Monday Club; pro-apartheid
director pro-junta British-Chilean
council member of FARI with Cercle members/presidents Brian Crozier,
Julian Amery, and Robert Moss, just as the aristocrat Sir Frederic M.
chair Institute for the Study of Terrorism, a clone of Crozier's
anti-communist Institute for the Study of Conflict
member Committee for a
Free Britain, which spent more than Pounds 200,000 on press advertisements
attacking Labour during the 1987 election
member Committee for a Free
World, an American neo-conservative group
member Media Monitoring Unit,
which attempted to "expose" left-wing bias in television news and current
consultant to private security firm Zeus Security
Consultants (did high level government contract work), owned by Major Peter
Hamilton, a close friend of Stephan Kock, the MI5, MI6, SAS agent who
allegedly once headed a government assassination team, Group 13
the security firm Securipol
close friend of the extremely influential
neoconservative John Lehman, apparently a top player in the
chairman second neoconservative Jonathan
conference; deputy chairman of the Independent Broadcasting Authority),
together with intelligence connected religious extremists as Michael Ledeen
and Arnaud de Borchgrave, were among the contributors to papers read at the
One Circle to link them all.
Ow well, don't forget the
Jonathan Institute or the Foreign Affairs Research Institute.
Chalfont had already been working with Cercle
presidents Brian Crozier and Julian Amery (advisor to the BCCI in the 1980s)
in their Foreign Affairs Research Institute (FARI), together with Sir
Frederic M. Bennett (owned a Rolls-Royce and four homes, one of them in the
Cayman Islands; director Kleinwort Benson Europe (his mother was a
long time Lloyds underwriter; influential member of Parliament
from the 1950s to the 1980s
member Monday Club; always warning people about
the KGB threat and supported every regime that opposed the USSR
in 1978; vice-president of the European-Atlantic Group
leading official in
the private group Council of Europe in the late 1970s and 1980s
director of the BCCI in Hong Kong until 1986
Member of the Privy Council
ridiculed his party (Conservatives) for their Euroscepticism
after his retirement in 1987
Freeman of the City of
London, visited Bilderberg and Cercle member Robert Moss (141)
Chalfont, Crozier and Moss were involved with the Jonathan Institute. FARI
was set up in 1976 with funds coming from the pro-apartheid government in
South-Africa (142) and reportedly also from Lockheed (143).
Reports that it
was linked to the CIA are rather obvious today (144). FARI gathered several
anti-communist authors which spread their stories in the international
press. Members spoke about terrorism being out of control while implying
this was all organized from Moscow in an effort to destabilize the West.
Many of the examples they mention in reality were the result of CIA, MI6,
and Gladio special operations, most notably those in Italy.
Some other acts
of terrorism seem to have had little to do with the Soviet Union and instead
were probably the result of extremist nationalism or freedom fighters. These
alternative possibilities were however carefully ignored.
Conferences of FARI were attended by Crozier's money man Richard Mellon
Scaife and Cercle members William Casey and Edwin Feulner (roommate of
neocon warhawk and military-industrial complex insider John F. Lehman;
president Heritage Foundation; Knight of Malta; trustee Mont Pelerin
Society; IMF & World Bank insider; chairman Institute for European Defense
and Strategic Studies in London; Bohemian Grove).
Ray Cline of the CIA and
the Jonathan Institute has been in attendance, just as General Daniel O.
Graham of the CIA and DIA (145). Like Stilwell, both Graham and Cline were
involved with the US Global Strategy Council. Cline was among the founders
of the USGSC and chairman of the institute from 1986 to 1994.
The members of the USGSC (initially 70 or so) had close ties to the Military
Industrial complex, including highest level (often retired) representatives
of the Navy, the Air Force, the Army, the intelligence agencies, shady
defense corporations as SAIC, private business groups, and unusual religious
interests as the Moonies and Knights of Malta.
Over the years, known members
have included Cercle member
William Colby (CIA director 1973-1976; deep
insider of many black programs, including CIA drug trafficking; Opus Dei)
Henry Luce III (of Time Magazine; president of the Pilgrims of the United
States since 1997; grandfather bought and held on to the JFK Zapruder film)
Clare Booth Luce (Dame of Malta)
Admiral Bobby Ray Inman
(director ONI; director DIA; director NSA; deputy director CIA; director
Wackenhut; director SAIC; Trilateral Commission; chairman of the "JPL
Oversight Committee", which is not supposed to exist)
Michael Alan Daniels
(Special assistant for political science research at the Office of Naval
Research 1969-1971; president USGSC 1986-1994; section vice president SAIC
since 1986; chairman of SAIC's Network Solutions since 1995)
Scowcroft (chair Presidential Commission on the MX Peacekeeper ICBM;
co-founder and vice-chairman of Kissinger Associates from 1982 to 1989;
American Ditchley Foundation; Atlantic Institute; CFR; Trilateral
Commission; visited Bilderberg)
General Daniel O. Graham (deputy director
CIA under Colby 1973-1974; director DIA 1974-1976; one of the most important
pushers of the Star Wars program; founding chair of High Frontier, Inc.;
member advisory board CAUSA and member of the Moon-linked American Freedom
Edward Teller (seen as the father of the Hydrogen Bomb;
hardliner and suspected of involvement in many black projects; major pusher
of Star Wars; member Council for National Policy and the Committee on the
Arnaud De Borchgrave (intelligence-connected hard-right
journalist; good friend of Sun Myung Moon)
Lynn Francis Bouchey (organizer
of CAUSA operations in Central and South America)
General E. David Woellner
(chairman of the Sixth CAUSA-USA Foundation Conference and a defender of the
Lev Eugene Dobriansky (president of the Moonie-sponsored Global
Economic Action Institute from 1987 to 1992. Head of the British branch of
Global Economic was Cercle president Julian Amery; chair Victims of
Communism Memorial Foundation 1994-2003, in which Cercle participants Edwin
Feulner and Zbigniew Brzezinski were involved, just as Cercle president
Jeane Kirkpatrick (co-chair USGSC; member President's
Foreign Intelligence and Advisory Board and Defense Policy Review Board;
member Council for National Policy and the Committee on the Present Danger;
chair of Moon's Nicaraguan Freedom Fund; member National Advisory Council of
the Victims of Communism Memorial Foundation, which has close leadership
links to the Moonies and Le Cercle)
General Maxwell Taylor (former chair
Joint Chiefs; IDA)
General Albert Wedemeyer (chief of staff to Lord
Mountbatten in South-East Asia in 1944; chief of staff to Chiang Kai-shek,
head of the KMT and later founder of Taiwan who was in bed with one of the
major Chinese Triads)
General Robert Schweitzer (served under Alexander
Haig at NATO; served under Haig, Kissinger and Richard Allen at the NSC;
chair Inter-American Defense Board 1982-1987; national strategy program
director USGSC since 1987; friend of General Singlaub; publicly supported
Oliver North after Iran Contra)
Christopher Morris (chair and
vice-president of M2 Technologies, which focuses on non-lethal weapons;
research director at the USGSC, working directly under Cline, and later
heading the council's Non-Lethality Policy Review Group; member of the 1995
CFR's Task Force on Non-Lethal Technologies, of which Dov Zakheim and Jason
scholar Richard Garwin also were members)
Janet Morris (president & CEO
of of M2 Technologies; also member of the 1995 CFR's Task Force on
Non-Lethal Technologies; research director on non-lethal technologies at the
USGSC 1993-1994; consultant at Los Alamos and close associate of Col. John
General Stilwell, the Cercle member involved with the USGSC, deserves some
It has already been discussed that he was a member of The 61
and the Special Operations Planning and Advisory Group (SOPAG), and
seemingly an insider to the CIA drug trade in the 1980s. His involvement
with CIA drugs might well go back to WWII and the early 1950s when he was
involved in South-East Asia, including Burma, as a commander of Army forces
and later regional CIA/OPC chief (146).
More about Stilwell's
history before he turned 65 can be read in his biography in
membership list. We'll focus on the last six years of his life, some time
after he had been introduced to Le Cercle and The 61.
After Stilwell left the Defense Department in 1985, he set up Stilwell
Associates, a private consulting firm that specialized in national security
affairs. It had the CIA and the Defense Department among its clients
Because of this outside independent role Stilwell was able to
claim in September 1987 he "was traveling at the request of no one" when
Philippine authorities were worried about his presence in their country
(148). Several months earlier his friend and SOPAG colleague General
Jack Singlaub had also been peeking around on his own, allegedly searching
for "sunken treasure" (149).
In November 1986, Ray Cline and
General Robert Schweitzer, like Stilwell both of the US Global Strategy
Council, had also paid a visit to the Philippines. When the visit of Cline
and Schweitzer was reported in the press, Cline stated that they were not
official U.S. representatives and that they did not discuss the trip with
the White House. But for some reason they did talk to former Marcos' defense
minister, Juan Ponce Enrile, allegedly to persuade him not to mount a coup
against the new sitting president Cory Aquino (150).
August 1987 Enrile was arrested (and later released) with alleged CIA agent
Colonel Gringo Honasan for attempting to overthrow Aquino. Accusations of
CIA involvement were widespread and were the result of decades long US
support for Marcos.
Presidents like LBJ, Nixon, Reagan, and Bush (vice-president at the time)
have strongly supported Marcos' severe dictatorship. The main reason was his
strong anti-communist stance while allowing the US to operate Clark Air Base
and Subic Bay Naval Base on the island. In the early 1980s, as Marcos became
older and his grip on the nation waned something typical happened.
withdrew US support for his friend Marcos and key officials in Marcos'
regime, mainly defense minister Enrile and police force head General Fidel
Ramos, switched sides to the growing opposition. Marcos was driven out and
evacuated by the United States to Hawaii. Cory Aquino came to power, but
immediately it were individuals like Ramos and Enrile who were forcing, even
threatening, Aquino to embrace the (partially new) ruling business and
political oligarchy (151).
A month after the failed August 1987
coup, Stilwell added that,
"unless Aquino acted decisively on military and
political fronts - and embraced the right-of-center leaders in the private
and public sector - there could be "a political breakdown" resulting in a
coalition government with the communists within the next two years."
Philippine government officials were openly speculating that the
"CIA guys in town" were part of a rogue group, "maneuvering outside the
normal channels of operations", which played a role in the August 28 coup by
the military. It was also openly alleged that the U.S. valued its Navy and
Air Force bases in the country more than the freedom of the Philippine
Whatever role the US exactly played during the 1980s in the Philippines,
what was going on here were private intelligence and likely direct
Like The 61 charter said:
"a Private Sector Operational Intelligence
agency, beholden to no government, but at the disposal of allied or
friendly governments." (154)
The same group that was involved in creating and
running The 61 was involved here in the Philippines, not to mention in all
other parts of the world.
The British had been doing these things since at
least 1963 when a group consisting of,
running a largely private war in the Yemens. (155)
As for the US,
these private operations exploded in the 1970s and got another boost right
after 9/11. In both cases, the same anti-communist, radical Zionist,
neoconservative group was involved in expanding these operations.
Around the time Stilwell left government service and set up Stilwell
Associates he joined the Advisory Board of Americares, a large relief
organization with heavy duty links to the pharmaceutical industry, the
intelligence community, right wing politicians, and the religious fringe.
Americares used the Knights of Malta to distribute supplies and to more
easily move across international borders.
In 1991, the year Stilwell would
pass away, J. Peter Grace (Knights of Malta leader; CNP; 1001 Club; Pilgrims
Society; AIFLD; W.R. Grace & Co.; Citibank), a long time colleague of
Stilwell, was chairman of the advisory board while Zbigniew Brzezinski, a
Cercle participant like Stilwell, was its honorary chair.
Moonie-connected Knight of Malta William E. Simon was another member of the
Robert C. Macauley is the founder and head of Americares,
not to mention a childhood friend of George H.W. Bush, the son of a Knight
of Malta. Although Macauley is not a Catholic, he did have pictures of
President Reagan, Pope John Paul II and Mother Teresa on his office walls
In the early 1970s, Macauley had joined hands with Bruce Ritter, a Catholic
priest who took care of runaway children in New York. Both were invited for
an audience with the Pope in 1982, who gave the newly-established Americares
the opportunity to give aid to Poland (157).
This was purely a
geopolitical move as the Vatican, for several years, had been funding a
Catholic underground in Poland, and now that an economic crisis had broken
out, Americares was chosen to bolster the image of both the Vatican and
Reagan's Catholic Conservatives even more. At the same time, the Vatican
began supporting Solidarnosc (Solidarity), a large group of dissident
workers, with funds and a printing press.
Roberto Calvi's Banco Ambrosiano
was among the banks that had bankrolled these operations and the Vatican was
coordinating their actions with officials from the Reagan administration,
including General Alexander Haig, General Walters, and William Casey, all
three members of the Knights of Malta (158).
the Vatican, Le Cercle and The 61, William Wilson, who
also was a Knight of Malta, was another one (159).
Georges Albertini of the Cercle, a major French fascist with a series of Synarchist
links, provided crucial intelligence gathered by The 61 on Poland to the
Pope during this time (160).
Unfortunately for Macauley, in 1990, he was forced to break his association
with the Catholic priest after this person was accused of sexual misconduct
with some of the male runaways he was sheltering (161); a very
common accusation in the Catholic Republican Paneuropa circles that is being
dealt with in this article.
Some more Cercle members. King Hussein of
Jordan used to receive millions from the CIA. Sultan Qaboos from Oman
overthrew his father in 1970 (which was a good thing) with help from
"British advisors" and privatized the oil economy. He is rumored to be
gay by almost his entire population, which is quite a sin in an Islamic
Both Hussein and Qaboos were advised by
Cercle member Air Marshal Sir Erik Bennett. Turki from Saudi-Arabia is
reported to have met his old protege Osama Bin Laden as late as July
2001, together with the CIA, and resigned 10 days before 9/11 as head of
Saudi intelligence. Auchi was part of Saddam Hussein's inner circle and
is standing here next to Prince Andrew at the Anglo-Arab Organization.
Actually, it isn't known if former Nazi spy
chief General Reinhard Gehlen attended Cercle meetings, only that he was
very interested in the Cercle and that he recruited its founder, Jean
Violet, as an intelligence agent.
Details can be found in the
which features very detailed biographies often with a number of
Back to Contents
The Vatican-Paneuropa network
Even though its members have been involved in intrigues around the world,
the Cercle's main purpose has always been to discuss issues and possible
action relating to European integration.
The vision of the original French
and German founders, as representatives of the Paneuropa movement, seems to
have been a strong Catholic-dominated Europe, led by a Franco-German axis.
Historically, you'll find a close cooperation between the Vatican-Paneuropa
network (from which the Cercle emerged) and the right wing Christian
Democratic parties in countries as Germany, Italy, France, and Belgium.
went the same way in Spain, although a democratic system did not exist there
until after the death of Franco.
IN GERMANY the main players were CSU members Otto von Habsburg, Franz Joseph
Strauss, Count Hans Huyn, and several of their aristocratic friends like the
Thurn und Taxis and Thyssen-Bornemisza families. Their connections to Opus
Dei and the Knights of Malta have already been discussed. Let's also not
forget Paneuropa member Konrad Adenauer, the long time Chancellor of Germany
who signed the 1957 Treaty of Rome for Germany.
Adenauer, a co-founder of
the Christian Democrat Union (CDU) - the national party of the Bavarian CSU
- received the Magistral Grand Cross from the Knights of Malta and the
Charlemagne award from the Paneuropa Union. Franz Josef Bach, the personal
assistant of Adenauer, is likely to have played an important behind the
scenes role as a long time organizer of Cercle meetings. Adenauer was a
founding member of Le Cercle.
IN ITALY the Opusian Cercle member Giulio Andreotti was one of the main
behind the scenes players from the late 1950s to the early 1990s. He started
his career under Paneuropa supporter Alcide de Gasperi, one of the early
builders of Europe and likely someone who was recruited into the Cercle.
Statements from Roberto Calvi that Andreotti was the real head of the P2,
with Francesco Cosentino and Umberto Ortolani just beneath him, are entirely
possible (162). Although Licio Gelli, nicknamed "Italy's puppet master" for
heading the P2, was a member of the Knights of Malta, like Andreotti and
Ortolani, Gelli did not have the background to have been any kind of top
man. Gelli's foreign puppet masters were Cercle member Henry Kissinger from
the White House, NATO official Alexander Haig, and rogue CIA official Ted
Frank Gigliotti, a ranking US Mason and former OSS agent, was
another one of Gelli's immediate instructors (163). Andreotti has numerous
accusations against him that he worked with the mafia (and the CIA) to keep
his Christian Democrat Party in power. There's also an accusation that he
personally ordered an assassination to keep some personal secrets from
leaking out. Andreotti was the first to acknowledge the existence of a
European Stay-Behind army, named Gladio in case of Italy.
As for Italy's nobility, the earlier-mentioned Prince Carlo della Torre e
Tasso is a board member of the Coudenhove-Kalergi Foundation and Prince
Carlo de Bourbon, the Duke of Calabria, is head of the Vatican-recognized
Italian branch of the the Sacred Military Constantinian Order of St George.
It's a Catholic chivalric order, but has recently also invited a small
number of non-Catholics, including Cercle chairman Lord Norman Lamont (Privy
Council; Rothschild; chair Oil Club) and Cercle member Anthony Cavendish
(MI6; not of the Dukes of Devonshire).
The controversial Cercle member
Nadhmi Auchi (did illegal arms transfers for Saddam) has been awarded by the
order. The Catholic Duke of Norfolk (together with the Cecils the most
influential family in the history of Britain; British liaisons to the
Vatican for centuries; Roxburghe Club member with the Cecils, Cavendishes,
Rothschilds, Oppenheimers, and formerly Paul Mellon) and Lord Guthrie (SAS
commander; Gold Stick to the Queen; Pilgrims Society; Knights of Malta;
Rothschild) can also be found among the British members of the Sacred
Military Constantinian Order (164).
The controversial Duke of Savoy is
another important family in Italy, but has not been tied directly to Paneuropa or Le Cercle.
CERCLE MEMBERS FROM BELGIUM have yet to be identified, but the group they
must have come from is rather limited. Take former defense and prime
minister Paul Vanden Boeynants and his sidekick Baron Benoît de Bonvoisin,
whose father had been a director at Société Générale (still the major pillar
of the Belgian economy and the Vatican-linked aristocracy) and an initial
Bilderberg participant. Both were reportedly members of Opus Dei.
Boeynants and Benoît de Bonvoisin were two of the founders of Cercle des
Nations in 1969, an aristocratic Belgian club with Jean Violet as one of the
few foreign members.
Cercle des Nations was another hard-right offshoot of Paneuropa activities and had about 80 members when it first opened. Vanden
Boeynants is also said to have been involved with Violet's Académie
Européenne des Sciences Politiques while the headquarters of the Paneuropean
Institut Europeen de Developpement was located in Baron de Bonvoisin's
Co-founder and vice-chairman of this institute was Paul Vankerkhoven, a side-kick of Otto van Habsburg who founded the Belgian
branch of the World Anti-Communist League. Vankerkhoven was a co-founder of
CEPIC in 1972, a secretive hard-right inner group of the Social Christian
Party (PSC) of vanden Boeynants and Baron de Bonvoisin.
To keep things
short, this group, which includes the Belgian royal family of
Saxe-Coburg-Gotha and many high nobility figures, has at times tried to
undermine Belgium's democratic process. One of these attempts was in the
early 1970s. Another one in the early 1980s.
There's more going on in Belgium. According to victim-witnesses since the
early 1980s, and especially testimonies made in the aftermath of the Dutroux
affair, this group (see PEHI's 'Beyond the Dutroux affair' for details) is
involved in different pedophile rings. Some of these rings are set up to
compromise politicians and businessmen; others seem to be just for "fun" and
include child hunts at different domains and some very disturbing forms of
mental and physical torture.
Reports of involvement of Opus Dei and Knights
of Malta figures are quite common.
One report that might be relevant here
involves a former PSC treasurer of the youth division, Jacques Thoma. He
claimed that at some point he was invited to mass orgies by his superior (a
CEPIC member and an associate of both Nihoul and suspected Gang of Nijvel
members), which were explained to him as an Opus Dei initiation test, to
which these people were trying to direct him. Later on, he was drugged and
taken to a meeting where everyone was dressed in black robes and masks.
purpose of this meeting was "to be initiated into higher circles".
girl had been sacrificed and participants drank her blood. Other girls from
eastern Europe were also present. He tried to leave, but was drugged again.
The next morning he woke up in his car. Still heavily traumatized ten years
later, he did not dare to give an official testimony, because he had been
Another case from Belgium involving the Vatican-Paneuropa network: Paul vanden Boeynants and
Prince Albert (now King) was among the names mentioned
in the Pinon Affair that began in 1979 (167). It involved parties at which
minors were sexually abused. In June 1981 the editor of Pour Magazine was
brought into contact with one of the participants in these parties and
started an investigation. Within days he receives a telephone call from an
attorney in Brussels who advises him to stop his investigation, because
"panic has broken out in a certain political milieu".
Ten days later the
headquarters of Pour are destroyed by a fire (168).
Two individuals have been named as the person that threatened the editor.
One is Jacques G. Jonet, formerly a political secretary of Otto von Habsburg
and a leading figure in a whole string of Paneuropa-associated groups,
including the Habsburg-founded Centre of Documentation and Information and
Cercle des Nations.
He co-founded several of these institutions and is
reported to have been a close associate of Baron de Bonvoisin (169). A quick
background check anno 2006 turns up that Jonet is the representative of the
Belgian Order of Malta, while his wife is a member of its administrative
council (170) (together with a few interesting family names). Both were
present at the wedding of Prince Philip (son of King Albert II and Princess
Paola Ruffo di Calabria) and Mathilde d'Udekem d'Acoz (Dame of Malta) in
It also turns out that Jonet is still involved with the Wilton
Park conferences, together with the Grand Chancellor of the Order of Malta
The other possibility at the time was Vincent vanden Bossche, a lawyer of
numerous hard-right individuals who was part of the same milieu as Jonet.
Like Jonet, he was a member of Cercle des Nations and Ordre du Rouvre,
although his credentials are less impressive (173). It is entirely possible
that both men were involved in trying to stop the editor of Pour from
publishing the results of his investigation.
Keep in mind that in the first case mentioned (the alleged Opus Dei
initiation) we were talking about secretive parallel cells within existing
organizations, like those that had been created by this same group in
Belgium's gendarmerie, and reportedly also in the military, political
parties, and at one or more universities. Even though these reports of
extreme child "abuse" initially seem farfetched, they come from more than
half a dozen (known) witnesses.
They also bear a remarkable similarity to
the Franklin and Craig Spence cases, which revolved around the highest level
Republican circles in the US. For a quick oversight of these cases you might
want to take a look at the biography of Cercle member and Knight of Malta
William Casey, who had an awfully close relationship with Larry King and
Craig J. Spence.
A separate article will appear on this Belgian group and
its similarities to other cases.
SPAIN WAS headed by Franco until 1975, which was only partially approved by
the reactionary Vatican-Paneuropa network. On the one hand, Franco was a
good Catholic boy, treating the non-Catholics in his country as sub-human.
On the other hand, because of Franco's totalitarian tendencies Spain
remained isolated from the European integration process. That has been a
major reason for the pressure on Franco to make reforms, allowing for a more
democratic and pro-European Spain to emerge after his death (174).
said that Franco initially contacted the head of the Paneuropa movement,
Otto von Habsburg, to become his follow-up, as the Habsburgs had ruled the
country in the past for nearly 200 years. After a long discussion Otto
declined, instead suggesting that Prince Juan Carlos should become Franco's
And so it happened. Franco, Habsburg, and Carlos have all
been named as members of the Knights of Malta. They also supported Opus Dei.
There's only one known Cercle member from Spain at the moment, Federico
Silva Munoz. In 1967, Munoz, as Franco's Minister of the Interior, had
blocked a bill that would have recognized the existence of Spain's small
non-Catholic community. Most Opus Dei figures in government voted in favor
of the bill, as part of the overall reform process (176).
In October 1969,
there was an almost complete overhaul of Franco's cabinet with only four
members of the old cabinet remaining. One of the four cabinet members that
was allowed to stay was Munoz (177), although he resigned five months later,
allegedly because of a difference of opinion with the now dominant Opus Dei
clique, headed by Franco's eminence grise Admiral Carrero Blanco and several
others (178). Munoz remained a member of the Spanish Congress and became
head of Campsa, the oil concern which had a monopoly on oil distribution in
The struggle between the Falangists and Opusians continued in
the years following, with the latter losing a lot of influence after Admiral
Blanco had been assassinated in December 1973, allegedly by the ETA. This
was the view of the newspapers at the time; not something later put forward
by alternative researchers.
Franco passed away in 1975 and King Juan Carlos became the new head of
government. After Carlos dismissed the fascist prime minister Carlos Arias
Navarro in 1976, Munoz was among the few who were recommended by Carlos'
highest advisory body, the Council of the Realm, to be made prime minister
of Spain (180).
However, Carlos picked the right wing, but far less
reactionary, Adolfo Suarez, who reportedly was a member of Opus Dei (181).
Munoz, in the mean time, had become head of the hard-right
Unión de Centro Democrático (UCD) and in October 1976 he incorporated this party into the
newly-created Alianza Popular (AP).
The AP was a federation of several
parties, which were all fascist or borderline fascist. It opted for a "more
gradual" change to democracy than Suarez and his allies had planned for.
Some co-founders with Munoz were former Franco ministers Gonzalo Fernandez
de la Mora, Lopez Rodo (influential minister in the 1960s and early 1970s,
who is said to have engineered the Opus Dei takeover of the Spanish
government), and Manuel Fraga Iribarne (182).
When the new constitution was
approved in 1978, turning Spain into a parliamentary democracy, most members
of the AP, as totalitarian as they were, decided to accept the constitution.
Not Munoz and Fernandez de la Mora, who withdrew from the AP to continue
with their Unión de Centro Democrático party, renaming it in January 1979 to
Derecha Democrática Española (DDE).
That same month they established a
coalition with Fuerza Nueva of Blas Pinar and other ultrafascists; probably
the most reactionary and dangerous political faction in Spain at the time
Munoz spoke out a few times against the new Spanish constitution in
the months and years following (184), but soon disappeared in political
obscurity. At some point he did become involved with Le Cercle, and that
In 1983, Gonzalo Fernandez de la Mora, Munoz's
political partner and good friend since they first met at a gathering of the
Asociación Católica Nacional de Propagandistas in the 1940s (185), founded
the fascist magazine Razon Española (Spanish Reason) and became its
Munoz would regularly write articles for the magazine. Razon
Espanola was founded on October 1, 1983 as an outgrowth of the Balmes
Foundation, in turn established a few months earlier by a grant of the
German Hanns Seidel Foundation (186), which has already been mentioned
It is the political trust attached to the Christian Social Union of
such Opus Dei and Cercle luminaries as Otto von Habsburg and Franz Josef
Strauss. There have been accusations that the Foundation has supported the
Contras in Latin America and Mobutu (a 1001 Club member like Herbert
Batliner, King Juan Carlos and Prince Johannes von Thurn und Taxis) in Zaire
In case of Razon Española, it funded the magazine over a number of
years until it was able to operate on its own. As you can read above,
Fernandez and Munoz were friends of Strauss and when the BBC highlighted
this in a panorama on Strauss in 1980, Brian Crozier, outgoing chairman of
Le Cercle (which no reader of The Times knew) felt compelled to defend his
associates (188). However, Crozier himself was a great supporter of the
Franco regime and like Munoz, Fernandez de la Mora, or Blas Pinar, he deemed
Spain's new constitution unworkable (189).
In short, all these people are
fascists, even though they always deny that.
In 1989, Cercle investigator David Teacher claimed that Munoz was a "senior
Opus Dei member" (190).
Judging by most of his career, Munoz was not in the
camp that, at least in Spain, has traditionally been identified with Opus
Dei. However, this religious group transcends political parties and Munoz's
later involvement with Le Cercle, Strauss and the Hanns Seidel Foundation
certainly made him a close associate of what has often been termed "God's
THE PANEUROPA UNION and the Vatican never had to complain about France.
Whether a president was Gaullist or socialist, at the very least they
favored a strong Europe as a political and military counterweight to the
United States; and even though Great Britain was accepted into the European
Union, it was never able to wedge itself into the dominant Franco-German
This mainly had to do with the French. All French presidents were
staunch Roman Catholics, some even connected to Opus Dei, like Robert
Schuman, Antoine Pinay, and Valery Giscard d'Estaing, with probably a few
others we don't know it about.
The French have been the primary motor behind the European Union. Paneuropa
member Robert Schuman, through Monnet, laid the foundation for the European
Union with the 1949 European Coal and Steel Community (ECSC).
In the 1950s,
Antoine Pinay founded Le Cercle with the Opusian Jean Violet and Otto von
Habsburg. They immediately invited Konrad Adenauer, Robert Schuman and Jean
Monnet. Monnet, although mainly connected to Anglo-American banking and
political interests, was the Frenchman who organized the 1948 Congress of
Europe with Joseph Retinger, came up with the idea of the ECSC, played an
important role in the 1957 Treaty of Rome, and later set up his influential
The decade after the ECSC, Bilderberg, Le Cercle and the European Economic
Community (EEC) had been created, Violet and Pinay arranged for the
Franco-German alliance between de Gaulle and Adenauer. This was in January
1963 and just in time for a possible acceptance of Britain into the EEC. De
Gaulle, however, vetoed Britain's entry anyway, which guaranteed
Franco-German dominance of the EEC for the years to come.
Coudenhove and Habsburg adored de Gaulle not only for giving France a strong
military and even its own nuclear arsenal, but also for his leadership role
in furthering European integration (191).
In 1969, however, after de Gaulle
had steered Europe too much in an anti-NATO, anti-Anglo-American, and
domestically too Conservative course, he had built up so much opposition
against himself that he was forced (or forced himself) to resign. His more
moderate right hand man, Georges Pompidou, a person in close contact with
the Cercle and a long time employee of the Rothschild Bank, took over.
Pompidou's éminence grise became nazi-collaborator Georges Albertini, who
worked at Banque Worms, coincidentally said to have been a major Synarchie
front. Albertini worked with Jean Violet and Brian Crozier in both The 61
and the Cercle. He also briefed the Pope on several occasions. In 1973, at
the recommendation of Georges Pompidou, Otto von Habsburg became the new
president of the Paneuropa Union, as Coudenhove-Kalergi had died the year
Pompidou himself suddenly died in 1974 and the interim
president became Alain Poher, a member of Le Cercle who was president of the
French Senate from 1968 to 1992. He had earlier served as acting president
when Charles de Gaulle died, but lost the election to Pompidou. This time
Poher lost the election to Valéry Giscard d'Estaing, a Knight of Malta and
good friend of Jean Violet, who became the next president of France until
Giscard, his father Edmond, together with associates as Prince Jean de
Broglie, Robert Leclerc and members of Le Cercle are said to have introduced
Opus Dei to France (193).
More on Giscard in a minute.
Things changed in 1981, when the socialist Mitterrand became president of
France. One family who couldn't appreciate the new socialist policies were
the Rothschilds, who saw their family bank nationalized. They had to shift
attention to New Court, their securities firm in New York at Rockefeller
Center with stakes in corporations as TRW and Hughes Aircraft (194).
even though Mitterrand was a socialist, he also was a an ardent Catholic who
favored European integration. Also, Georges Albertini already anticipated
the victory of the socialists and brought Mitterrand's closest friend and
confidant, Francois de Grossouvre, into the Cercle six months before the
elections. When Mitterrand was elected in 1981, he appointed de Grossouvre
as coordinator of security and intelligence (195).
Four years later de Grossouvre and Admiral Pierre Lacoste, two leading officers in the French
stay-behind networks (196), were among a small group that decided to sink
the Rainbow Warrior in reaction to the protests of Greenpeace against French
nuclear testing at Mururoa (197).
Mitterrand, known to have been greatly interested in Machiavelli, stayed a
long time in office. Only in 1995 the more Liberal Jacques Chirac took over.
Besides being the usual opportunist, Chirac has become a great supporter of
European integration and of the failed 2005 European constitution.
the voting process for the new constitution began, Chirac brought up the old
issue of Britain's loyalty to the European Union, saying that if its
citizens voted against, it would be clear that Britain felt more strongly
about cooperation with the Commonwealth and the US. He then promoted the
idea that any country who voted against the constitution could better leave
the European Union (198).
In April 2005, Chirac went on TV and openly stated
that a no to the European Constitution,
"would halt the European project in
its tracks, and pave the way to an unregulated, uncontrolled free-market
world, dominated by the United States." (199)
Even after these strong statements, the person who oversaw the writing of
the European constitution blamed Chirac for France's rejection of it.
person was Valéry Giscard d'Estaing, a long time political rival of Chirac,
and claimed it was a mistake of Chirac to hand out the third part of the
European Constitution to the French people for reviewing, because part III
had already been ratified in previous treaties. Giscard literally begged
Chirac not to do this (200).
However, since the people of France had to
revote on this section as part of the overall constitution, Chirac decided
to include it in the mailings, possibly to avoid any accusations of
conspiracy that would undermine his chances in the 2007 elections. This
third part, which dealt with the major EU policies - the internal market,
the economic and monetary union, employment, social policies, consumer
protection, environment, agriculture, energy, research, etc. - was severely
criticized by the French people, who always leaned to socialism and
communism quite severely (which in no small part had to do with France's
Vichy and neocolonial past).
Back in 1957, at the time of the Treaty of Rome
when a lot of these very liberal policies were agreed upon, the socialists
had nothing to bring in, as the CIA, MI6, the SDECE and French Gladio units
made sure that leftist elements, however strong they were, did not get any
executive positions in government. The same thing happened in other
As a good Opusian and Malteser Knight, Valéry Giscard d'Estaing already
proposed a solution to the problem of getting the European constitution
"Let's be clear about this: the rejection of the Constitutional Treaty in
France was a mistake, which will have to be corrected... the Constitutional
Treaty will have to be given its second chance. When? When France has
completed her great electoral debate, with the presidential and
parliamentary elections which are due to be held 14 months' time, in spring
How? By refocusing the debate on the only genuinely constitutional
parts, that is to say, the first part, and the Charter of Fundamental Rights
demanded by the European Left, neither of which have given rise to much
protest. Then the third part could follow a parliamentary route, which is
far better suited to its legal nature." (201)
Giscard enjoys the full support of his friend Otto von Habsburg, who agrees
that the constitution should be reintroduced, albeit the more
"comprehensible" early version of Giscard (202). Discussions about this have
already been underway between Chirac and Merkel (of the CDU in Germany).
Chirac is a Catholic, but seems to be less influenced by his fate than some
of the politicians surrounding him.
For example, Giscard and Habsburg
strongly oppose any possibility of Turkish membership in the European Union,
probably because that will interfere with their vision of a new Holy Roman
[Update: in late November 2006,
Pope Ratzinger all of a sudden saw no
objections to Turkey joining the EU. It would be really interesting to know
the reason behind this sudden and complete 180 degrees reversal. However,
one thing seems to be certain: the reactionary Ultramontanists aren't
getting what they want].
Chirac on the other hand is open to the idea that
Turkey would eventually be allowed to join. Merkel agrees on this issue with
Otto and Giscard, but is not part of their Opusian Bavarian clique.
Edmund Stoiber, a protégé of Strauss, tried to compete with her for the German
chancellorship in 2005.
Back to Contents
vs. US-supported Anglo-German alliance
Besides individual politicians there's a very distinct group out there that
supports the idea of Turkey becoming a full member of the European Union.
That is the neoconservative crowd that rose to power in the early 1980s, was
involved with the Jonathan Institute conferences and is now supporting the
Project for the New American Century (PNAC).
The Henry Jackson Society (HJS),
founded in 2005, is an extension of PNAC, and includes some of the European
partners of what is supposed to become the "New American Century".
The Henry Jacksons work towards what they call "global liberal democracy" and favor an
Anglo-German alliance for Europe, especially after the failed constitution
in June 2005 (203).
The society's principles are:
Liberal democracy should be spread
across the world
The US and the EU – under British
leadership – must shape the world more actively
Maintenance of a strong military with
global expeditionary reach
Both William Kristol and Robert Kagan,
of PNAC, are patrons of the Henry Jackson Society.
Bruce Jackson is also a
patron, and is the third of five directors of PNAC involved with the HJS.
Jackson was a Military Intelligence officer who went to work for Lehman
Brothers and Lockheed. He now is president of the non-profit US Committee on
NATO. Some other patrons of the society are Richard Perle, General Jack
Sheehan, James Woolsey, Hubertus Hoffmann, and Vytautas Landsbergis.
Richard Perle, the good friend of Brian Crozier, has become known as the ultimate
warmongerer. Marine Corps General Jack Sheehan, a former NATO intelligence
chief who now works for Bechtel (like Shultz and Weinberger going back to
the Jonathan Institute), has been accused of doing a lot of dirty tricks and
black ops for his superiors in Washington and New York (204).
Perle used to
be chairman of the Defense Policy Board, the advisory body to the Pentagon.
Sheehan is still a member. James Woolsey, the former CIA director under
Clinton, is another member of the Defense Policy Board. Hubertus Hoffmann,
from Germany, is a founder of the large World Security Network Foundation in
New York and the General Capital Group in Germany. Like Alexander Haig,
Henry Kissinger, Vernon Walters and Donald Rumsfeld, Hoffmann is a protege
of Fritz Kraemer.
The anti-communist Vytautas Landsbergis is a political
leader from Lithuania.
The HJS itself has been named after Senator Henry Jackson, a Democrat who
visited the first Jonathan Conference on international terrorism in 1979,
together with Crozier, Moss, Chalfont, Pipes, Kemp, Cline, Bush Sr.,
Netanyahu, and others. He favored a hard-line policy against the USSR and
supported the war in Vietnam. Because Jackson constantly advocated increased
military spending on weapons systems and at the same time received funding
from Boeing, he became known as the "Senator from Boeing".
Jackson has been
a great supporter of the radical Zionist movement.
Henry Jackson was one of the early neoconservatives, a movement that
transcends the historic division between the democrats and republicans,
especially after the Democratic Leadership Council (DLC) was founded in
1985. Henry Jackson's proteges Richard Perle and Paul Wolfowitz are an
examples of that, just as Richard Perle favoring DLC democrat Joseph
Lieberman for the 2008 US presidency.
James Woolsey is another example of a
neoconservative democrat, just at Senator Moynihan (worked for Pilgrim Averell Harriman in the 1950s, the person who helped to organize the
Psychological Strategy Board; important United Nations official in the
1970s; important DLC operative; chairman of a 1997 Commission that shed some
light on the inner workings of the Black and Deep Black Programs; friend of
the Rothschild family), a person who attended the 1984 conference of the
Neoconservatives are hawks who put big business and
geopolitical interests above anything else. Individual freedom means nothing
and is seen as an ineffective.
Today's neoconservatives are linked to people like Julian Amery and Brian
Crozier through organizations as the Jonathan Institute, Foreign Affairs
Research Institute, Institute for the Study of Conflict, Le Cercle, Forum
World Features, Encounter and the Congress for Cultural Freedom. The last
three institutions are known to have been funded by the CIA. As already
discussed, Richard Mellon Scaife played an important role in taking over
funding of some of these institutions.
In case of the Institute for the
Study of Conflict, the CIA arranged a meeting between Scaife and Crozier
when the latter was looking for funding. Since the 1990s, Scaife's
foundations have been funding other news media and think tanks, all of them
Some of the most important have been Strategic Investment,
the Project for the New American Century and Newsmax.
Someone like the
neoconservative William Kristol provides another CIA link to the Project for
the New American Century, of which he was a primary founder. William's
father, Irving Kristol, co-founded Encounter magazine for the CIA, and his
successor, Melvin Lasky, was a friend and political associate of Brian
Irving later also founded the National Interest (and Public
Interest), a neocon foreign policy magazine with such notorious radical
Zionists on the advisory board as Morton Abramowitz, Dov Zakheim, Conrad
Black (1001 Club; another media tycoon) and Henry Kissinger. Former CIA head
James Schlesinger has been chairman of the advisory council while Richard
Pipes, Crozier's associate during the 1980s, was also involved with the
These days Irving's son William is a political commentator for Fox
From left to right: Irving
Kristol and his son William, Rupert Murdoch, Richard Mellon Scaife
and business partner Lord
Rees-Mogg, Brian Crozier and his friend Richard Perle, and CCF co-founder
and Cercle president Julian Amery.
According to Crozier,
Murdoch's newspapers were under attack in 1980s by "militant trade unions".
Seems Murdoch never forgave
These media outlets have in common that they are
selling a fascist domestic and foreign policy agenda by spreading propaganda
and clear cut disinformation.
The problem is that it's neither fully CIA nor
private. With all these radical Zionists and General Jack Sheehan as a
patron of the Henry Jackson Society, it becomes tempting to refer to them in
the terms Catherine Griggs, wife of Col. George Griggs, used: the
Brotherhood, the Firm or the Joint.
This group also has not shied away from reporting on conspiracies and
presenting themselves as the religious patriots fighting the "New World
Order" and the
United Nations. Examples of this kind of disinformation are
carefully presented stories that suggest the "radical left" is the
mastermind behind conspiracies as Waco, Oklahoma, CIA drugs, high technology
sales to China, the murder of Clinton's associates and the murder of William
"Alternative" news publications like Newsmax and
Strategic Investment have been involved in spreading this kind of
disinformation. Both magazines have counted heavy involvement of Richard
Mellon Scaife and Lord William Rees-Mogg.
Cercle member William Colby said something very
interesting to his friend Senator John DeCamp about these individuals.
"At the time of his death, Bill [Colby] was
working with Britain's Lord William Rees-Mogg... [Rees-Mogg] used to
write that in the coming age of society, an elite of 5% of the total
population would rule over the other 95% as virtual slaves. But Rees-Mogg
is not just nasty-- he represents great power...
On several occasions, when I saw Bill or
spoke with him during the last year of his life, I'd ask him whether I
should subscribe to his newsletter [Strategic Investment], or, whether
he'd just give me a few copies to look over. He always told me not to
waste my money. "Ask me about any situation your interested in, and I'll
give you as thorough a briefing as I possibly can. But don't believe a
word you read in that newsletter I'm writing for." Strange...
Maybe his involvement with Rees-Mogg was
more complicated than I ever speculated... And I recall another
incident... Together with Rees-Mogg, the most savage press hound
attacking Clinton was one Ambrose Evans-Pritchard, a Briton... [he] once
called me, urgently demanding a meeting. I had never heard of him
before, and so I asked Bill if he had ever heard of this fellow...
Bill answered, rather ominously, as I now
"His name is Ambrose Evans-Pritchard.
And," he said, "be very careful."" (205)
Rees-Mogg, as a member of the exclusive Other
Club since 1973, is a close associate of the leading aristocratic families
in Britain, including the Duke of Devonshire (Cavendish), Lord Carrington
(Pilgrims president), Lord Rothschild and Prince Charles.
Here they dine together with such individuals
Sir Edward Heath
Sir Denis Thatcher (husband of)
Lord Richardson of Duntisbourne (J.
Henry Schroder; Bank of England; Morgan Stanley; BIS; Chemical Bank;
Chase Manhattan; Rolls Royce; Ditchley; Group of Thirty; presided
over G-10 meetings; Privy Council; Order of the Garter; Pilgrims
Winston Spencer-Churchill (grandson of
the famous PM; son of Pamela Harriman; had an extra-marital affair
with the former wife of famous arms dealer Adnan Khashoggi; MP;
involved in some projects with Cercle members),
...are other members of the Other Club, just as Cercle participants Baron Kelvedon, Lord Julian Amery and the 7th Marquess
of Salisbury (206).
The Rothschilds, Cecils, Drummonds (remember
Monnet?), Dukes of Norfolk, Dukes of Devonshire, together with Harry
Oppenheimer and Paul Mellon, could also be found in the same room with Rees-Mogg
when the even more exclusive Roxburghe Club met (207).
and Evans-Pritchard connection with Richard Mellon Scaife and American
Zionists in discrediting the American left seems to be an example of a
Apparently there are at least two major power centers on the planet at this
moment, with one relying primarily on economic and military dominance, and
the other relying mainly on religious authority.
The former is the radical Anglo-American-Israel
alliance; the second the just as radical Vatican-Paneuropa network, which is
dominated by Knights of Malta and a small coterie of Opus Dei associates.
There are arguments for cooperation between these networks, especially in
their fight against communism, socialism and nationalism. However, there
does seem to be some disagreement on how the world should be organized. The
Franco-German vs. the proposed neocon Anglo-German axis is just one
indication of that.
Otto von Habsburg's remark that "the Pentagon is
now a Jewish institution as all key positions are occupied by Jews"
(208) is another, and it's interesting that he has not been attacked
over it by the normally over-alert Zionist clique.
Some other examples have already been named in
this article, but in general it's easy to spot the the tendency of the
Vatican-Paneuropeans to denounce the neoliberal policies of the
The neocon vs. Vatican-Paneuropa network. Le
Cercle has historically been associated with the radical Vatican-Paneuropa
group; Bilderberg more with the network drawn in red. However, many
Bilderberg participants were not as hawkish as today's Zionist neocons.
Through the Gladio networks and economic support, the US has always been
very influential in Europe.
The Vatican's peak influence in Washington
was during the Reagan years and has always been strong in South America.
In Britain there are very aristocratic Catholic families as the Dukes of
Norfolk and the Earls of Perth who have been liaisons to the Vatican for
centuries, as opposed to leading families as the Dukes of Devonshire
(leading Whigs/liberals for centuries) and Marquesses of Salisbury
(prominent defenders of the Church of England).
Most of these families, even today, are
religious with a capital R.
Interestingly, the four families mentioned
are all involved with the small Roxburghe book club for generation after
generation, so they probably get along reasonably well. In fact, they
should, as they've become pretty close relatives over the past five or
six centuries during which they been struggling for power in Great
Back to Contents
The dilemma of the British
As for Le Cercle, it has already been discussed that leadership went from
the Vatican-Paneuropa network to members connected to the Anglo-American
The Britons visiting Le Cercle can be divided in two groups:
those who want Britain to join the European Union, like Brian Crozier; and
the more recent heads as Jonathan Aitken and Lord Lamont, who have been
crucial in the campaign to halt further British integration into the
European Union. Lamont remains one of the leaders of the British eurosceptic
movement with his Bruges Group. Most of the recent British visitors of Le
Cercle, all Conservatives, also want to keep Britain out of the European
Aitken gave an explanation in September 2005:
"People have realised that the dream of a
federal Europe with Britain at the centre of it has been a dream that
has failed. I and a few others could see that it would fail and it has."
Although likely a sincere statement, it's hard
to take anything serious that Aitken says. He's a great nephew of the
Hitler-intimate Lord Beaverbrook, whose son was a member of
He's also a MI6 agent involved in massive amounts of illegal arms
sales, and even recruited his own 13 year old daughter to lie for him in
court. Then, after his conviction and subsequent release, he still received
a salary of about $15,000 a month from an unknown source.
Out of jail it
also turned out that Aitken had become even more religious and that he
seemed to have switched from being an Anglican to a Roman Catholic. Uttering
creepy sentences as "I am a man of unclean lips" he even went to do a
personal Ignatian retreat to entrench the spiritual exercises of the Society
of Jesus in his subconsciousness (210).
And this is a man who ran what the
Independent called "one of the most influential, secretive, and... exclusive
political clubs in the West" (211) and was described by Alan Clark as
someone "who knows absolutely everybody in the world" (212).
After the European constitution was rejected by France and the Netherlands
in May and June 2005 respectively, Lord Lamont, the present chairman of Le
"The Europe of Delors [fervent Catholic
socialist; received Charlemagne award], Mitterand [fervent Catholic
socialist; received Charlemagne award] and Kohl [Christian Democrat;
fervent Catholic; received Charlemagne award; illegally supported by
funds from the Vatican] is dead. No means no.
political elite will make a profound mistake and create an awakening of
bitterness if they try to sidestep France's historic vote. Europe is a
dysfunctional mess. Europe needs to go back to square one. Blair and the
British Government in their role as the Presidency of the EU should
renegotiate the existing treaties to create a looser free trade Europe
of 25 countries." (213)
Although another very questionable person,
Lamont is a serious eurosceptic and brings up many good points on his Bruges
It's however one of Lamont's former bosses, until the year
before he became head of Le Cercle, who draws most of the questions to him
pertaining Britain's policy towards the European Union.
Before becoming a
very influential politician, Lamont worked at N.M. Rothschild & Sons and
Rothschild Asset Management. In 1993, he briefly returned to N.M. Rothschild
& Sons. At the time, Sir Evelyn de Rothschild personally appointed Lamont to
his board, going against the advise of other board members.
As the whole
board was composed of staunch eurosceptics, outside observers began to
wonder if this was going to hurt the family bank's business in mainland
However, almost ten years later, in 2002, it turned out that
Sir Evelyn set up and was actually funding the most influential pro-EU think
tank in existence:
"Peter Mandelson, the former secretary of
state for Northern Ireland, has found a new backer for his political
ambitions in the shape of Sir Evelyn de Rothschild, the
multi-millionaire banker... the two have become firm friends... So it is
perhaps no surprise that de Rothschild has emerged as the mystery funder
of Policy Network, a "super think tank" that boasts some of No 10's
senior policy advisers on its board and is chaired by none other than
The sum donated to date is said to be £250,000. The name of
the donor is missing from the think tank’s accounts, but its directors
have been privately concerned that they will look secretive if they
continue to hide his identity... In June this year the de Rothschilds
were among the organisers of a “progressive” leaders’ conference run by
Policy Network at Brocket Hall in Hertfordshire, which attracted Clinton
and the prime minister.
In the evening, the gathering moved to Ascott
House, de Rothschild’s home in Buckinghamshire, for a seated banquet for
100. The board of Policy Network — set up by a group of young Blairites
in 2000 — reads like a Who’s Who of Labour’s inner circle." (215)
Maybe Sir Evelyn changed his mind.
Unfortunately, he doesn't like to give interviews
(216) so it is likely to
remain anybody's guess. In general, members of the Rothschild family swing
both to the left and right and there's really no telling what goes on in
And not only through Lamont are they close to Le Cercle;
through the earlier mentioned Other Club and Roxburghe Club the Rothschilds
were/are in close contact with leading Cercle members Lord Julian Amery,
Paul Channon (Baron Kelvedon; his daughter died from a heroin overdose in
the mansion of Count Gottfried von Bismarck; very close friend of the Duke
of Kent) and the Cecils. If there are other links they are unknown.
To finish up this section, the big question in England today seems to be
what should be done with the European Union. Surrender it to the
Franco-German alliance? Or continue the effort to join the Franco-German
alliance, and possibly even to replace it with an Anglo-German one?
long run, both strategies are risky. If Britain stays in the European Union
it better gets some control over where all these radical Catholics are
taking the continent. And if Britain withdraws from the European Union that
decision might some day come to haunt them, as they have usually been the
first target of a unified Europe.
This is why Britain often adopted a policy
to back the weakest power on the continent.
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Religious extremism and
It is the Vatican, together with a large chunk of its Catholic "black"
nobility - most notably the Habsburgs - that has been dreaming of recreating
the Holy Roman Empire.
In an attempt to make that happen, after World War
II, Count Richard Coudenhove-Kalergi and Otto von Habsburg (re)created their
Paneuropa network across Europe in which many Opus Dei members and the more
aristocratic Knights of Malta became involved. To accomplish their mission
of rebuilding the old Holy Roman Empire, Opus Dei needed to get people of
influence in their camp. That's why they have always focused on recruiting
politicians, bankers and other men of influence (217).
However, if we look
at the Belgian model, described earlier, it seems there are separate cells
within these extremist institutes in which some of the more powerful members
are lured. If they bite, there will be no turning back. Unfortunately,
investigations into these parallel groups are always sabotaged and shut
down, usually by people involved in them.
Le Cercle, founded in the 1950s, started out as a branch of this extremely
conservative Vatican-Paneuropa network, and possibly as a counterweight to
the liberal Anglo-American-oriented Bilderberg group. However, the Vatican
always had support from influential persons in the United States, most
notably leading figures in the CIA.
With funds and leadership from these US
officials, it helped to set up and maintain the Stay Behind networks, whose
job to suppress internal "communosocialist" influences was at least as
important as their stay behind function in case of a communist invasion.
Le Cercle worked in synergy with the Stay Behind networks, bringing the
hard-right, often CIA-supported elements within the national European
governments closer together.
It remains a bit of a mystery who came up with the money to set up Le Cercle.
It has been reported that the CIA funded most of the European movement in
the decades after WWII through a network involving the Rockefeller
Foundation, Ford Foundation, the American Committee on United Europe (ACUE),
and other fronts, switching at times their support for British policies to
those of France (218).
Details on CIA involvement in funding Le Cercle are
missing, although Alan Clark did report in the early 1990s that the Agency
was involved (219).
This shouldn't come as a surprise with all the reported
Knights of Malta in the top levels of the CIA over the years: Donovan,
Dulles, Angleton, McCone, Casey and Walters (acted as Casey's representative
at some point).
The father of George H.W. Bush, another CIA head, has also
been named a Knight of Malta while William Colby has been called a member of
Opus Dei. Colby and Casey at some point began attending meeting of Le Cercle.
The presence of these reactionary Catholic organizations is quite common in
Le Cercle. Membership in many cases is still not undisputed public
knowledge, but accusations among the seventy or so known Cercle members are
numerous. The following Cercle participants have been named as Opus Dei
For details look in the individual biographies
in the Cercle
In addition, Cercle member Robert Schuman is
known to have been a close sympathizer of Opus Dei, although no one seems to
be sure if he was a member.
Among the associates of Cercle members, there also are numerous accusations
of Opus Dei involvement. Violet's Belgian associates like Paul Vanden
Boeynants and Baron de Bonvoisin are an example.
Otto von Habsburg's Paneuropa network is filled with them, not the least of them the Giscard
d'Estaing family who wrote the original EU Constitution. Jacques Santer, a
former long time prime minister of Luxembourg and president of the European
Commissioner, is known to have been very friendly to Opus Dei. Santer sat on
the board of Nadhmi Auchi's General Mediterranean Holdings.
Others have also noticed the connection between Opus Dei and Le Cercle.
Robert Hutchinson saw Le Cercle as an auxiliary organization of the Opus
David Rockefeller, in his memoirs, hinted to the
influence of Opus Dei in Le Cercle, or as he called it, the "Pesenti Group",
and indirectly painted Otto von Habsburg and Jean Violet as allies of Opus
A particularly interesting comment from David Rockefeller is that
he, as one the founders of Bilderberg and one of the best connected
globalists in the world, supposedly was only told about the existence of Le
Cercle in 1967, and only at the exact moment that he was recruited (221).
What is really amusing is that
Brian Crozier is quoted in Wikipedia's
article on Opus Dei, stating that Opus Dei,
"is not, as its enemies either think or want
others to think, a political party; nor is it a political pressure
This is just one of the numerous examples in
which Crozier is technically correct, but is still trying to get people to
draw the wrong conclusions (also notice the word "enemies").
Crozier is a really "reliable" source when you
consider that he, a British intelligence agent, propagandist and Franco
sympathizer, was deemed reliable enough to take over Le Cercle from its
Opusian founders. But then again, nobody ever heard of Le Cercle. Following
now are the known Knights of Malta that can be found among the ranks of Le
Again, for details look in the individual
biographies in the Cercle membership list attached to this article.
Otto von Habsburg (honorary "professed")
Konrad Adenauer (honorary)
Reinhard Gehlen (honorary)
Antoine Pinay (honorary)
Alain Poher (honorary)
Also, through J. Peter Grace and Americares,
Cercle members General Stilwell and Zbigniew Brzezinski certainly were as
close to the Knights of Malta as you can get without actually becoming a
Many associates of the Cercle were also Knights of Malta.
Licio Gelli, official head of the P2
Count Alexandre de Marenches, a
rival of Jean Violet who set up the Safari Club with CIA knights
Prince Valerio Borghese, who led the aborted 1970 coup in Italy on behalf of the
Borghese's closest associates were James Jesus Angleton and former Nazi
General Otto Skorzeny, both also Knights of Malta.
Other Cercle members like Carlo Pesenti, Monsignor Brunello and Count Hans
Huyn haven't been named as members of Opus Dei or the Knights of Malta, but
were so close to the Vatican's reactionary establishment that it's likely
that some day they'll also turn out to have belonged to one of these two
groups. And if not, there are quite a number of other candidates in the
There also are three non-Catholic British Cercle participants that have
become members of the Sacred Military Constantinian Order of Saint George, a
Catholic templar order headed by Prince Carlo de Bourbon, the Duke of
Calabria. Like Opus Dei and the Knights of Malta, any possible deeper
purpose of this order is not public knowledge.
Former Cercle president Jonathan Aitken seems to be the only person in Le
Cercle involved with the Jesuits, which are generally seen as less
reactionary than Opus Dei and the Knights of Malta.
Additionally, a number of Cercle members have
been involved with institutions with strong links to the Moonie cult.
Religions in Europe. Yellow
is Islam, green is Russian Orthodox, Red is Roman Catholic and blue is
Especially in the blue
countries many people are not religious anymore for several generations;
they usually consider
themselves atheist or are open to a variety of spiritual ideas,
mainly dealing with life
after death and paranormal abilities.
So called "New Age" (Pagan)
religions are virtually non-existent.
Among them are the Victims of Communism Memorial
Foundation, which counted the involvement of Brian Crozier, Edwin Feulner
and Zbigniew Brzezinski; and the Global Economic Action Institute, of which
the London branch was chaired by Julian Amery, head of Le Cercle at the time
the story came out.
The picture that emerges here is one of religious fanaticism.
At least 20
percent of the known members of Le Cercle belong to Opus Dei and-or the
Knights of Malta, including most of the founders. And even those that do not
belong to these organizations can be freakishly religious, like Colonel
Billy McLean or the afore mentioned Jonathan Aitken. In the end, these
even though they are more composed and better educated than the average
fundamentalist Muslim, might well be just as hard to reason with.
But religious extremism isn't the only thing that sketches the life of the
average Cercle member.
Taken together, Le Cercle is characterized by:
an anti-democratic mindset
illegal or covert arms sales
undercover financial support
anti-socialist, and anti-nationalist coups
organizing private intelligence and
other covert action groups
spreading of propaganda and
a struggle for European unification
The usual excuse for projects like this is that
these individuals are fighting the "bad guys" and therefore the end
justifies the means.
This is actually true in many cases, but what's really
interesting though is that the persons involved in these projects tend to
moral degenerates themselves and in the end you can't help but wonder if
their own propaganda and covert operations contribute in keeping this
worldwide circle of violence alive. It's a mistake to think people like this
have built the democracy we live in today.
They are actually restrained by
it. Democracy has been built through a combination of scientific
achievements and subsequent uprisings of people who thought they should
benefit from these improvements. Over a period of time a reading and writing
middle class was built. However, science and technology have reached a level
now where it becomes increasingly important for the average citizen to
become aware of, not what's going in the elected government, but what's
going on in the halls of the permanent government.
In case of Le Cercle, many leading members still seem to have the mentality
of a historical person like King Ferdinand II, the Holy Roman Emperor who
ordered the Spanish Inquisition and was largely responsible for the Thirty
Ironically, this war ended with the Peace of Westphalia,
responsible for the rise of the modern nation state, the end of the Holy
Roman Empire and a severe decline in the influence of Otto von Habsburgs'
ancestors. If individuals like this get their way with Europe, life could
some day become very depressing.
And if you're wondering if these people
really are that dangerous, let's recap one example mentioned earlier in this
"The most talked-about subject in Spain last
week was something that did not happen: the failure of the Cabinet to
pass a bill that would at last grant a measure of religious freedom to
Spain's tiny non-Catholic minority... For years, Spain's non-Catholics
have almost been non-people, barred from participating in the mainstream
of Spanish life.
They were, in fact, not even officially recognized as
having been born, married or buried... Interior Minister Camilo Alonso
Vega, 77, who as Spain's top cop maintains that the Spanish are "the
most unruly people in Europe", argued that religious freedom would only
stir up trouble... On a more philosophical level, Public Works Minister
Federico Silva Munoz, 43, contended that granting religious liberty to
minority sects would shatter Spain's spiritual unity.
connected with the military supported the views of Vega and Munoz..."
Munoz, together with his good friend Fernandez
de la Mora, was a Catholic extremists and the most die hard Francoist
At some point Munoz was invited to the Cercle. Soon thereafter
his friend Fernandez de la Mora sets up the fascist propaganda rag Razon
Espanola with financial support of the Bavarian, Opusian, Paneuropa clique
consisting of Franz Josef Strauss, Otto von Habsburg, Count Hans Huyn (whose
wife is a Habsburg descendant) and others.
A few years earlier, The Times
had reported on Strauss' friendship with Munoz and Fernandez de la Mora, and Crozier immediately jumped in to defend his associates, claiming he had
great respect for these individuals and that they were anything but fascist.
Never mind that Crozier was an admirer of Franco and that a good number of
his Cercle associates have worked with fascists during and after WWII, or
were supporters of the Shah of Iran (including himself), Pinochet, Mobutu
and the apartheid regimes in southern Africa.
So just remember, these are dangerous people and they are far too
influential for us not to know about their activities. (Membership list)
Back to Contents
 1993, Brian Crozier, 'Free Agent',
p.191: "The inspirer and long-serving organiser of the Pinay Cercle was
 1994, R.T. Naylor (Professor of Economics at McGill University),
'Hot Money and the Politics of Debt', p. 258: "Violet's political
formation came in the 1930s in Le Comite Secret pour l'Action
Revolutionnaire (CSAR). A far-right political cult modeled on a
Freemasonic movement, complete with Masonic-style rites and rituals...,
CSAR was sort of a predessor of Licio Gelli's P-2. It was intensely
secretive in all but its admiration of Franco and Mussolini, and after
the war some of its members were accused of being Nazi collaborators."
Source cited by Naylor is 1984, Pierre Pean, 'V: Enquete sur l 'affaire
des 'avions renifleurs'', p. 90. French author Philippe Bourdrel did a
lot of work on CSAR.
 November 16, 1946, The Nation, 'The People's Front': "The French
Synarchists founded several other secret organizations, of which the
most important was the "Cagoule" (C. S. A. R."Comité secret d'action
revolutionnaire), an extreme rightist military outfit whose members held
commanding positions in the army. Pétain and his adviser,
Loustaneau-Lacau, joined the C. S. A. R."
As I can't go through all the French and Spanish sources to write a
separate article, I'll just dump some historical information on the
political aspect of the Synarchist Movement of Empire in this endnote.
*) September 9, 2005, comment of Pierre Beaudry of Executive
Intelligence Review on the first version of the article on Le Cercle:
"You have not mentioned anything about the Synarchy International in
connection with Jean Violet and Antoine Pinay [never heard of it at the
time]... the CSAR that Jean Violet came out of was, in reality, the
revolutionary arm of the Synarchy International... Also, it was the top
synarchist banker, Francois Bloch-Lainé, of the Lazard Frères, of the
Banque de Paris et des Pays Bas, and Banque Worms, who deployed Antoine
Pinay to become Finance Minister in the government of de Gaulle, in
1958." I later ran into Hippolyte Worms (supposedly one of the original
Synarchist SME members) via Cercle member Georges Albertini, an
intelligence associate of Jean Violet. I also came across Jean Violet's
good friend Valéry Giscard d'Estaing, whose father worked closely with
Francois Bloch-Lainé. I think it's interesting that my work usually
parallels that of EIR, although they usually draw conclusions I cannot
support without far more evidence. EIR sees an organization like Le
Cercle as the "right hand" of the Synarchy International. I'm not
convinced of that, although I don't discount it either. I'm also not
convinced of the fact that Synarchism is studied these days in high
society, although it is certain that the Martinist and Synarchist Order
still exists today in countries as Spain and France, and that they have
recruited at least some important members. One of the things that struck
me, as pretty much the last quick background check before ending this
article, is the following text from LaRouche (2003, 'A short definition
of Synarchism'): "According to another EIR article, the occult order
behind Synarchism, known as Martinism, has an outer veneer of
Catholicism, and a rotten core: Martinism, a mocking perversion of
Catholicism..." This is one of those instances in which you don't know
if EIR has based their claims on documentation, witnesses or personal
opinion, but this would have been my guess after seeing the strong
correlation between the Vatican (Opus Dei; SMOM) - Paneuropa network,
supposedly former Synarchist members, and the fact that Synarchism
existed/exists in the strongest Catholic milieu possible.
*) November 9, 1946, The Nation, 'The People's Front': "Synarchism [is]
not to be confused with the organization that has spread over Mexico and
found its roots in local political rivalries and clerical-agrarian
reaction. Synarchism as a worldwide conspiracy is attempting to take
over the functions of the fascists in those countries where the latter
cannot operate openly or to ally itself with existing fascist groups.
Michael Sordet, in a remarkably documented article, The Secret League of
Monopoly Capitalism, published in the scholarly Swiss review, Schweiner
Annalen (No. 2, 1946- 47), gives us a full description of the synarchist
movement in Europe. He describes the synarchists as "the representatives
of international high finance," who not only helped to bring fascism to
power in Germany and to provoke the war, from which they reaped enormous
profits, but who contributed to the defeat of France and the rise of
Petain and his traitorous clique... Le Mouvement Synarchique d'Empire
(M. S. E.) was founded in Paris in 1922... Its original promoters
numbered seven, three of whom have since been identified as Baron Leo de
Nervo, with connections in some fifty financial and heavy-industry
enterprises... Maxime Renaudin, a financier known to represent
international Catholic interests, and Jean Coutrot, a close friend of
Marshal Petain. The M. S. E. is rigidly aristocratic in structure:
members are recruited in powerful big-business circles and are expected
to enrol new adherents from among their friends. Every precaution is
taken to insure secrecy: if a person seems desirable because of his
position, he is subjected without his knowledge to careful investigation
that may last for several years before he is asked to join. The probe
covers the most intimate details of his life-family relationships, love
affairs, hobbies, opinions expressed in conversation, emotional
stability, and so on. The candidate has no contact with the organization
until the day he is invited to sign up; at that moment he makes the
acquaintance of a single member, the person who solicits his
application. Then he receives a copy of the "Pacte synarchiste
revolutionnaire," a hundred-page booklet, bound with a sealed gold band
which bears two identifying numbershis own and that of his sponsor.
About the organizational set-up and the policy-making bodies, he is told
nothing. Frenchmen in general learned of the existence of the M. S. E.
in the summer of 1941 when Jean Coutrot died under mysterious
circumstances which were never cIeared up. A collaborationist newspaper,
l'Appel, which carded the announcement of his death, revealed at the
same time that most of the ministers and generals in the Vichy entourage
belonged to this secret society. Coutrot had told an intimate friend
that the directing body of the M. S. E. consisted of four people, but he
mentioned no names. What are the contents of the "Pacte synarchiste
revolutionnaire," so vigilantly controlled? The most important section
provides for the division of the world into five great federations
imperiales, or societe mineures des nations. Metropolitan Britain and
its colonies and dominions make up one. The federation of pan-American
nations comprises the United States and the other countries of the
Western continent with the exception of Canada. The pan-Eurasian
federation consists of the Soviet Union, including all its Asiatic
republics but excluding Finland and the Baltic states. The pan-European-
African federation takes in Western Europe, including Finland, the
Scandinavian and Baltic countries, and the African continent excluding
the British colonies. China and Japan head the pan-Asiatic federation."
*) November 16, 1946, The Nation, 'The People's Front': "Despite the
highly secret character of the M. S. E., the following men have been
identified as members: Paul Baudoin [named as a major Opus Dei player],
director of the Banque d'Indo-Chine and a friend of Mussolini, who with
the help of the attractive Heltne de Portes became right-hand adviser to
Premier Paul Reynaud in the last months before France's capitulation;
Jacques Gudrard, a banker who held the post of Ambassador to Lisbon
under the Vichy regime; Jacques Barnaud of the Banque Worms, a great
favorite with Goring, who was responsible for handlng over to the
Germans the major French chemical industries headed by the Francolor
trust; Jacques Benoit- Mechin, author of a book on the Reichswehr, who
was rewarded for his services to the German army by being named a
director of the Banque Worms after the 1940 armistice; Pierre Pucheu,
Vichy Minister of the Interior and organizer of the Franco-German steel
cartel. Today the M. S. E. is attempting to restore those intimate ties
between French and German industrialists which it had so painstakingly
built up before the war... In his article in the Schweizer Anmalen,
Sordet hints that the main base of operations of the Synarchists is
shifting from Europe to the United States, and he names Admiral Leahy,
Robert Murphy, and du Pont de Nemours not as members but as individuals
they hope to use to make contact with influential Catholic and
industrial groups here."
*) 1969, William L. Shirer, 'The Collapse of the Third Republic', p.
218-219: "Later Coutrot would be generally credited with being the man
behind a technocratic movement called Synarchie, which to this day,
despite many studies of it, remains - at least to this writer, who has
pondered most of them - somewhat of a mystery... That some Synarchists
organized as far back as 1922 a secret society with revolutionary aims
has been established. It was called "Le Mouvement Synarchique d'Empire,"
or MSE, and its secret "Pact," containing "Thirteen Fundamental Points
and 598 Propositions" for the Synarchist revolution, was discovered by
the Vichy police in 1941 and published after the war... so far as one
can make out from reading the lengthy document the movement would set up
a sort of super monopoly capitalism, with competition abolished and
endless plans drawn up for production and distribution, the whole - as
well as the government - to be run by knowledgeable technocrats... That
at one time the MSE was linked to the terrorist Cagoule [CSAR] also
seems clear... this secret society of technocrats never got close to
staging a revolution."
 1997, Robert Hutchinson, 'Their Kingdom Come - Inside the Secret
World of Opus Dei', p. 155: "Rumours of Nazi collaboration led to
Violet's arrest following the war, but he was quickly released 'on
orders from above'. Source cited by Naylor is 1984, Pierre Pean, 'V:
Enquete sur l 'affaire des 'avions renifleurs'', p. 41.
 October 1989, #18, Lobster Magazine, 'Pinay 2: Jean Violet': "In
1951 he was approached by Antoine Pinay, who was a cabinet minister at
that point. On behalf of some Swiss lawyer Pinay sought to clear up the
matter of a Geneva-based firm that had seen its factory in Germany
seized by the Nazis during the war. Violet resolved the problem and
Pinay was so satisfied he recommend him to the new French intelligence
organization, SDECE." The author of the article took this information
from French authors Roger Faligot and Pascal Krop. Information in part
confirmed by: Brian Crozier, Free Agent, p. 191-192: "The inspirer and
long-serving organiser of the Pinay Cercle was Jean Violet, who for many
years had been retained by the SDECE as Special Advocate... He [Violet]
had developed a close friendship with Antoine Pinay, who had served as
French Premier in 1951 under the unstable Fourth Republic."
 1997, Robert Hutchinson, 'Their Kingdom Come', p. 155: "He joined
Antoine Pinay's entourage in 1955. By this time Violet had become close
to several Opusian personalities, among them Alfredo Sanchez Bella and
Otto von Habsburg." Corroborating information: December 2001, Skepsis.nl,
Sniffer Planes - Grandiose Pseudo-Scientific Swindle (translation from
Dutch to English): "The Count [de Villegas] was a member of the
Brussels-based Académie Européenne de Sciences Politiques, a kind of
branch of the ultraconservative Paneuropa Union established by Otto von
Habsburg, but of which Violet was the driving force, and where you could
find Father Dubois and Bernard Marcken." Brian Crozier confirms Violet's
role in Académie Européenne de Sciences Politiques, but never mentioned
it was part of the Paneuropa network. Both authors seem to have taken
this information from Pierre Pean, 'V: Enquete sur l 'affaire des 'avions
renifleurs'' (1984). Furthermore, in his biography David Rockefeller
presents Otto von Habsburg, Jean Violet, and Monsignor Alberto
Giovanetti of Opus Dei as the reactionary triumvirate within Le Cercle
in the late 1960s. Therefore claims that Violet joined Opus Dei, met up
with Otto von Habsburg and Sanchez Bella, and acted as one of their
agents in organizations like Le Cercle, Académie Européenne, and Cercle
des Nations is more than likely.
 1997, Robert Hutchinson, 'Their Kingdom Come', p. 153: "In 1949, the
year after the Communist takeover of Czechoslovakia, he [Alfredo Sanchez
Bella] co-founded with Archduke Otto von Habsburg the European Centre of
Documentation and Information (CEDI), whose objective was to construct
around the Spanish Borbóns a federation of European states united in
Christianity and anti-Communism. This sounded very much like a modern
resurrection of the Holy Roman Empire over which Charles V had reigned."
Also: 1990, Hugo Gijssels, 'De Bende & Co.', p. 174 (translated from
Dutch to English): "CEDI was established in 1949 and is headed by Otto
von Habsburg, who is chairman for life."
 November 4, 1969, Greeley Daily Tribune, 'Economic, Social
Advancement Aims of New Franco Cabinet': "[Alfredo] Sanchez Bella, aside
from his own talents as a diplomat, is the brother of Florencio Sanchez
Bella, leader of the Opus Dei in Spain."
 1997, Robert Hutchinson, 'Their Kingdom Come', p. 155: "In his
journeys, Violet came to know Father Yves-Marc Dubois, a French
Dominican who was in charge of international relations for his Order.
But Dubois represented more than the foreign policy interests of the
black friars of Faubourg Saint Honoré. He was described as a 'member of
the Vatican's intelligence network, if not its head'... When in Paris,
he [Dubois] stayed in the Dominican chapter house at 222 rue Faubourg
Saint Honoré, in the Eighth Arrondissement, within walking distance of
Jean Violet's apartment at 46 rue de Provence, in the Ninth
Arrondissement." Original source: 1984, Pierre Pean, 'V: Enquete sur l
'affaire des 'avions renifleurs'', p. 49
 * June 29, 1997, The Independent, 'Aitken dropped by the Right's
secret club': "Formed in the Fifties, Cercle was intended to cement
Franco-German relations, as a buffer to Soviet aggression during the
* Sunday Observer on April 6, 2003: "Founded in the 1950s by France's
Antoine Pinay and German Chancellor Konrad Adenauer Le Cercle..."
* June 18, 2004, Chancellery of HRH Crown Prince Alexander II of
Yugoslavia, Reception in honor of the "Le Cercle" conference: "Le Cercle
was founded in the 1950's by the former French Prime Minister Antoine
Pinay, and Konrad Adenauer..."
* September 5, 2004, Sunday Times, 'Le Cercle of the elite': "The club,
which has close links to the intelligence services, was founded in the
1950s by former French prime minister Antoine Pinay and former German
chancellor Konrad Adenauer."
* Also, David Rockefeller in his memoirs claimed he was recruited in
1967 and that Kissinger had been attending earlier meetings of the
Cercle. Therefore the Pinay Circle could not have been organized in
 April 1986, Issue 11, 'Appendix 2: the Pinay Circle': "The Pinay
Circle was set up in 1969 around the former Prime Minister of France,
Antoine Pinay. Pinay was very old and seems to have been little more
than a figurehead. Its chief fundraiser and leading light is the former
lawyer, Jean Violet."
 1990, Hugo Gijssels, 'De Bende & Co.', p. 174 (translated from
Dutch to English): "Paul Vankerkhoven, renowned member of the Ordre du
Rouvre, establishes in 1969 the 'Ligue Internationale de la Liberté (LIL),
the Belgian branch of the 'World Anti-Communist League' (WACL). That
same year he establishes in Brussels the select but controversial Cercle
des Nations... possibly more important is his membership of the
notorious extreme-right 'Centre Européen de Documentation et
Information' (CEDI) of which Vankerkhoven is secretary-general."
 1990, Hugo Gijssels, 'De Bende & Co.', p. 177
 The (2nd) Baron Kindersley appears on a January 1973 officers list
of The Pilgrims of Great Britain. His name disappeared in 1976, the year
that he died. Appointment to the Pilgrims board usually is for life.
 2003, Christopher Booker & Richard North, 'The Great Deception, The
secret history of the European Union', p. 43: "... Monnet met up again
with Arthur Salter. Their first encounter had been in London in 1914..."
Christopher Booker, an author of several books, has written for the
Sunday Telegraph since 1990 and was a founding director of Private Eye.
Dr. Richard North has been a research director for the (eurosceptic)
Europe of Democracies and Diversities group in the European Parliament.
This book contains quite a bit of information on the life of Monnet.
 1981, Carroll Quigley, 'The Anglo-American Establishment' (digital
version, which is not complete): "In 1936, at least eleven out of
twenty-six members of the council were of the Milner Group. These
included Lord Astor (chairman), L. Curtis, G.M. Gathorne-Hardy, Lord
Hailey, H.D. Henderson, Stephen King-Hall, Mrs. Alfred Lyttelton, Sir
Neill Malcolm, Lord Meston, Sir Arthur Salter, J.W. Wheeler-Bennett, E.L.
Woodward, and Sir Alfred Zimmern." A reasonably detailed history on
Arthur Salter has been compiled in Monnet's Cercle biography.
 January 21, 1930, New York Times, 'E. Walker as head of
Transamerica': "Mr. Giannini will resign his present office and become
chairman of the advisory committee of the corporation at the annual
meeting of Feb. 8. Mr. Walker, after becoming chairman of the board,
will remain chairman of the executive committee. He will resign the
presidency of the Bancamerica-Blair Corporation. Jean Monnet of
Bancamerica-Blair, will become vice-chairman of the Transamerica board."
December 10, 1931, New York Times, : "A. P. Glannini announced tonight
that he personally would head a "fight to the finish" to oust Elisha
Walker, chairman of the Transamerica Corporation, and "Wall Street
domination" from the corporation which he founded. He made the statement
after he had read a letter from Mr. Walker and James A. Bacigalupi to
Transamerica's stockholders. He called the letter "an attack on my
personal honesty and integrity"... He said the letter had been timed "to
catch me unaware" as it was not released for publication until after he
had left San Francisco tonight for Ventura and Santa Barbara, where he
planned to carry on the battle for proxies on behalf of Associated
Giannini won his Transamerica fight in February 1932, which is when
Walker had to resign as chairman. Monnet seems to have been fired at the
same time. Monnet was also fired as a director of the
Transamerica-controlled Bancamerica-Blair Corporation in March 1932.
 2003, Charles D. Ellis, James R. Vertin, 'Wall Street People: True
Stories of the Great Barons of Finance', Volume 2, p. 28-30 (biography
of Andre Meyer): "He brought with him, as Meyer knew he would, a network
of contacts that was the envy of almost every investment banker in
America. He was a director of Allied Chemical & Dye and American Steel
Foundries, and was the main American adviser for Belgium’s great
industrial dynasties, the Solvays and the Boëls. What’s more, he was the
key investment banker for many of America’s leading glass companies. His
prestige was such that wherever he went, this business followed...
Murnane, in fact, was the only other individual at Lazard, other than
Pierre David-Weill, whom Meyer could or would accept as a peer. He
needed George Murnane, a lot more than Murnane needed him."
Additional information in Monnet's Cercle biography.
 2003, Christopher Booker & Richard North, 'The Great Deception, The
secret history of the European Union', p. 21: "Following his lucrative
spell in China, Monnet's career as a merchant banker had continued to be
murky. On his return to America he had been investigated for tax
evasion. In 1938 his company company had even come under suspicion by
the FBI for having laundered Nazi money, although this inquiry was
called off without any charges being laid."
 1976, Antony C. Sutton, 'Wall Street and the Rise of Hitler'
 2005, Pierre Beaudry of Executive Intelligence Review, Synarchy
Movement of Empire (Draft), The Mennevee documents on the Synarchy, Book
IV: "Joseph H. Retinger was born in Krakow in 1888 into a Polish family
of Austrian descent. His family included no less than 9 University
Professors and a Nobel Prize winner. Educated in a very strict Catholic
observance, Retinger wanted to become a priest at the age of 17, but
instead, he decided to become a Polish Secret Agent working for a
so-called "Polish Independence."... At the age of four, Joseph's father
died and a friend of the family, Count Andrei Zamoyski, a very high
level Polish aristocrat, took the child under his tutelage, and brought
him to Paris where he lived as a French citizen. Count Zamoyski had
married Caroline de Bourbon, princess of the Two Sicilies, whose Spanish
ascendancy is also related to the French Bourbon family... ." Most of
his contacts in Paris, London, and Munich, during the 1909-1911 period,
were aristocrats and oligarchs: the Marquis Boni de Castellane, Lord
Charles Beresford, the Count de Castries (of Dien Bien Phu fame),
Marshal Lyautey (famous for his Action Francaise failed coup of 1934),
the Duchess of Ruthland, etc. were the people he worked for. In 1911, he
was brought to London to study at the London School of Economics, where
he was recruited as a British intelligence agent..." Retinger's work has
mainly been in line with the Anglo-American interests, but at one point
he did propose a plan to merge Austria, Hungary (like the old
Austro-Hungarian empire) and Poland as a tripartite monarchy under the
guidance of the Jesuit Order. He also was a Roman Catholic with good
connections to the Jesuit Order. Just an all round strange guy.
 2003, Christopher Booker & Richard North, 'The Great Deception, The
secret history of the European Union', p. 43: "Shortly after The Hague
Congress, two of the most active campaigners for integration, Josef
Retinger and Churchill's son-in-law Duncan Sandys, went to America to
lobby for support for their campaign for European unity. Here they met
two key figures, William J. 'Wild Bill' Donovan, founder in 1947 of the
CIA [head OSS, SMOM], and his colleague Allen Dulles, later to become
head of the CIA under President Eisenhower [OSS chief, SMOM]...A new
organization was set up, the American Committee on United Europe (ACUE).
From this time on, as academic research has established, the ACUE was
used as a conduit to provide covert CIA funds, augmented by
contributions from private foundations such as the Ford Foundation and
the Rockefeller Institute, to promote the State Department’s obsession
with a united Europe, in what one historian has called a’liberal
conspiracy’. Over the next few years, ACUE funding was secretly
channelled to a range of individuals and organisations working for
European integration, from politicians such as Paul-Henri Spaak and
trade unions to such influential British magazines as Lord Layton’s The
Economist and the intellectual monthly Encounter. However, the major
beneficiary of ACUE funding was the European Movement. Between 1949 and
1960, it was kept afloat almost entirely on $4 million of CIA money,
these contributions amounting to between half and two-thirds of the
Movement’s income. ACUE funds were also used for a range of other
purposes in Europe, including the financing of anti-Communist parties.
In 1948, for instance, the CIA paid $10 million to support the Italian
electoral campaign of Alcide de Gasperi a staunch supporter of European
integration. This substantial contribution was intended to help avert an
Italian civil war in which the Communists might prevail." Information on
the American Committee on United Europe (ACUE) was taken from the 2001
book 'The Hidden Hand' from Richard J Aldrich, a professor of politics
at Nottingham University who had acquired a load of newly declassified
files. June 24, 2001, The Mail on Sunday, 'CIA supported pro-Euro
group': "AMERICA'S Central Intelligence Agency secretly funded the
European integration movement and undermined British opposition, it can
be revealed. Newly declassified files show the American secret service
put at least $4 million - the equivalent of $28 million today - into the
movement in the post-war period when it was on the verge of collapse. At
the same time, it also provided secret backing for a programme to
undermine staunch resistance to the plan in Britain from Labour and
Conservative Governments. With the Anglo-American 'special
relationship', the United States has often been seen as the antidote to
European federalism. But it had a different agenda during the Cold War,
when the CIA wanted a rapid approach to Western European integration as
part of a strategy to combat the threat of Soviet expansion. By 1953, a
top secret CIA report judged the acceleration of European unity to be
one of its most successful covert operations. Details of the massive
American interference in the creation of modern Europe are revealed in a
new book, The Hidden Hand: Britain, America And Cold War Secret
Intelligence, written by Richard J Aldrich, professor of politics at
Nottingham University, and published by John Murray. In Washington, the
European Movement was seen as the brainchild of Winston Churchill, who
in 1943 offered his vision of a United Europe. But by 1950 Churchill and
his son-in-law, Cabinet Minister Duncan Sandys, were believed to be
'dragging their feet'. When Sandys tried to disband the European
Movement, the American Committee on United Europe (ACUE), led by Allen
Dulles, later head of the CIA, forced him to stand down as its
president. French politicians took over the lead role and, with ACUE
help, set up a secretariat in Brussels with the goals of a free trade
area using a single currency. The ACUE believed that: 'Britain will be
forced sooner or later, and in a greater or lesser degree, to come
 2003, Christopher Booker & Richard North, 'The Great Deception, The
secret history of the European Union', p. 58.
 July 25, 1969, Time Magazine, 'Seeking Unity--Slowly': "They were
all there, those aging statesmen who years ago committed their dreams to
the ideal of European unity. Jean Monnet, 80, "the father of the Common
Market," last week convened a session of his nonofficial Action
Committee for a United States of Europe in Brussels. Former Common
Market President Walter Hallstein was there, along with veteran French
Politicians Antoine Pinay and Maurice Faure and dozens of other ranking
European statesmen. Together, they constitute a sort of European shadow
government. They had come to Brussels in an attempt to spur Common
Market bureaucrats and the respective ministers of the Six (Belgium,
France, Italy, Luxembourg, The Netherlands and West Germany) to start
immediate negotiations to admit Britain to the economic community."
 2003, Christopher Booker & Richard North, 'The Great Deception, The
secret history of the European Union', p. 89-91.
 November 29, 2002, the Telegraph, 'The Earl of Perth' (obituary):
"John David Drummond was born on May 13 1907 into a family of Hungarian
origin which, according to tradition, is descended from a Drummond who
arrived in Scotland from Hungary during the 11th century... [his father]
served as private secretary to the Prime Minister Herbert Asquith and
attended the Paris peace conference in 1919, before heading the League
of Nations until 1933 [with Monnet under him]; his final post was as
Ambassador in Rome... [David] went up to Trinity College, Cambridge,
before joining J Henry Schroder, the merchant bank. For a time he worked
with Monnet, then a financial adviser to the Chinese government... Perth
was a keen Europhile. Deeply conscious of his father's role on the
international stage as the first secretary-general of the League of
Nations, he arranged a meeting in his flat during the early 1960s
between Edward Heath, the minister responsible for the EEC negotiations,
and Jean Monnet, the "father" of European union... He was a keen
promoter of Anglo-American relations, taking holidays in Florida and for
three years chairing the Ditchley Foundation... director of the Royal
Bank of Scotland... sworn of the Privy Council in 1957. As a prominent
Roman Catholic, he represented Britain at the last and most solemn of
nine Requiem Masses for Pope Pius XII in Rome in 1958. He went again in
1963 to represent the Queen at the Requiem for Pope John XXIII. He was
for some years the Catholic vice-president of the Council of Christians
 Known through his membership in the Roxburghe Club, ironically a
Membership list taken from: 1999, Donald Young and Quentin
Keynes, 'The search for the source of the Nile - Correspondence between
captain Richard Burton, Captain John Speke and others, from Burton's
unpublished East African Letter Book' ("Dedicated and presented to the
president and members of the Roxburghe Club"). Can be found at http://www.cypherpress.com/books/burton/burton.pdf.
Membership has been quite secretive and very few references to the
important members have existed, until this booklet was uploaded that is.
The important families tend to be in the club for generation after
generation. Some of these families also meet each other at the Other
Club (July 29, 1997, The Times, Secret members of the Other Club).
* As for Paul Mellon, the late Pilgrims Society member: February 3,
1999, The Times, Paul Mellon obituary: "Mellon was widely honoured by
academic and sporting institutions, including Oxford, Cambridge, the
Jockey Club and the Royal Veterinary College. As one of the great book
collectors of the world, he was a member of both the Grolier Society and
the Roxburghe Club."
 1993, Brian Crozier, 'Free Agent', p.192
 The Bruges Group, 'Franco-German Friendship and the Destination of
Federalism'. In this lengthy article, largely about de Gaulle's policies
towards Britain, de Gaulle is quoted as having said: "England is, in
fact, insular. She is maritime, she is linked to her exchanges, her
markets, her supply lines to the most distant countries. She pursues
essentially industrial and commercial activities and only slightly
agricultural ones. She has, in all her doings, very marked, very
original habits and traditions. In short, England's nature, England's
structure, England's very situation differs profoundly from those of the
 1993, Brian Crozier, 'Free Agent', p. 29-33. The full name of "Le
Centre" initially was Centre d'Observation du Mouvement des Idées. It
brought together members of German, Dutch and French intelligence,
together with a select number (30-40) of anti-communist scholars,
businessmen and-or journalists. The Dutch intelligence officers were
founders and leading officers in the Dutch Stay Behind network (Gladio)
and the most important German General attending the "colloques" answered
directly to General Reinhard Gehlen, the former Nazi spy master. SDECE
agent Antoine Bonnemaison, founder of "Le Centre", met Brian Crozier on
a plane in 1958. Crozier noticed that Bonnemaison was reading an
"unusually warm" thank you letter from General Raoul Salan for his talks
about psychological warfare to French troops in Algeria. A few years
later Salan would be one the primary founders of the terrorist
organization OAS that tried to assassinate de Gaulle and destabilize the
cease fire in Algeria. Le Centre was founded in 1955 and ran until 1963,
after which it was killed by de Gaulle. Bonnemaison then revived the
group as Centre d'Observation du Mouvement des Idées. Funds now came
from private French industrial enterprises as Péchiney and Air Liquide.
After this privatization the membership became almost exclusively
French, with Crozier usually as the only foreign participant.
 Ibid., p. 77
 Ibid., p. 191-192
 Ibid., p. 193
 Ibid., p. 97
 July 22, 2005, The Guardian, François Duchêne obituary
The information about the Trilateral Commission came from the membership
 1993, Brian Crozier, 'Free Agent', p. 191: "In fact, neither
Marenches nor Dickie Franks ever attended a Pinay Cercle meeting during
the years I was involved with it: between 1971 and 1985."
 Ibid., p. 97
 November 1988, Issue 17, David Teacher for Lobster Magazine, 'The
Pinay Circle and Destabilisation in Europe' (quoting from the 1980 Hans
Langemann papers): "Gehlen, who was always interested in the undertaking
[of the Pinay Circle], its figures, its personalities and its results,
succeeded in recruiting Violet as a special agent and granted him 6000
DM a month for many years. He also claimed that this sum had been agreed
with the former head of the SDECE, General Jacquier because Violet is
also receiving the same sum from the SDECE." Teacher translated this
from publications in Der Spiegel, No. 37, 1982, 'Victory for Strauss'.
 1993, Brian Crozier, 'Free Agent', p. 62: "... in the late 1950s
during my Economist years, ... I had been among the priviliged few
journalists invited to his [Jock Whitney's] small lunches at the
Connaught Hotel, and the more formal receptions at his residence in
 John Hay Whitney's name appears as a vice president on the officers
list of The Pilgrims of the United States until January 1982. He would
die a few months later.
 This whole bio is described in Crozier's book Free Agent, including
his involvement with Richard Mellon Scaife. Only the Foreign Affairs
Research Institute (FARI) isn't mentioned.
 Ibid., p. 96
 1986, Antony Sutton, 'The Best Enemy Money Can Buy'. For examples
and a partial timeline click here.
 1993, Brian Crozier, 'Free Agent', p. 182: "[Reagan] also got to
know Nelson Rockefeller when the latter was Governor of New York State,
and shared my view that Nelson was more intelligent than his banker
brother, David. He was critical of the role of David Rockefeller's Chase
Manhattan Bank in easing technology transfers to the Soviet Union.
Reagan also mentioned , with mild distaste, the role of the Trilateral
Commission (in which David Rockefeller, Brzezinski and, incidentally,
Edward Heath and Willy Brandt were involved) in sponsoring Jimmy Carter
as a potential presidential candidate."
* The following report was written by computer expert Dominic Paul
Baron, and was prepared for the London-based Foreign Affairs Research
Institute of Crozier, Amery, and other Cercle members. August 15, 1978,
Chronicle Telegram, 'U.S. vulnerable in computer war': "The United
States, moreover, has been far too eager to supply the Soviet Union with
sophisticated computer technology and training, Baron believes.
"Computer companies in the West fall over each other in their enthusiasm
to compete for the favors of the Soviet buying agencies,", writes Baron.
"The western businessman's sheer naivete in dealing with the astute
Soviet negotiators is quite depressing.""
 1993, Brian Crozier, 'Free Agent', p. 134: February 5, 1978, Time:
"A Soviet KGB agent told a Time correspondent in Cairo last week: 'Of
all the operations that the Soviet Union and the US have conducted
against each other, none have benefitted the KGB as much as the campaign
to discredit the CIA. In our wildest scenarios, we could never have
anticipated such a plus for our side. It's the kind of gift all
espionage men dream about. Today our boys have it a lot easier, and we
didn't have to lift a finger. You did all our work for us.'" A quote
that couldn't have come at a more convenient time for the CIA as opinion
of the CIA was at an all time low at this point.
 October 10, 1996, The Daily Mail, 'MoD 'scapegoat' is cleared of
karate killing': "The manslaughter conviction of a SAS-trained former
Army information officer who claims he was the victim of a dirty tricks
campaign by the security services was quashed by the Court of Appeal
yesterday. In a damning judgment, the Lord Chief Justice, Lord Bingham
[Pilgrims Society], cleared 53-year-old Colin Wallace of the killing of
antiques dealer Jonathan Lewis, who was found drowned in a river near
his home in Arundel, West Sussex, in 1980... Outside court yesterday, Mr
Wallace claimed the prosecution had been `disgraceful and totally
dishonest' and that the police had suppressed evidence showing that Mr
Lewis was killed by criminal members of the antiques trade in
Brighton... The decision was the latest victory for the former Ministry
of Defence official who claims that he may have been framed for the
manslaughter, that he was thrown out of the Army for refusing to join an
MI5 plot to topple Harold Wilson's government and whose warnings about
child abuse at the infamous Kincora home in Belfast were ignored to
protect an intelligence mole. Despite years of cover-up and government
stonewalling, his allegations have one by one been vindicated... He also
claimed to have worked in Northern Ireland on what he termed a
'psychological operation', which effectively involved inventing stories
and planting them with journalists."
 March 6, 2003, De Standaard (prominent Belgian newspaper), 'Baron
de Bonvoisin again to court': "Yesterday, the Black Baron Benoit de
Bonvoisin, with three of his compagnions, has been referred to the
Brussels penal judge in the affair of forged KGB documents. Together
with de Bonvoisin, his brother Pierre, Eric Van de Weghe and Christian
Amory have to stand trial."
Turns out I can't access the full article anymore now that I wanted to
translate it. Can't buy it either from the Netherlands without taking a
full subscription. Amory, like Baron de Bonvoisin, featured prominently
in the Gang of Nijvel affair, a program to destabilize the Belgium
 1993, Brian Crozier, 'Free Agent', p. 243: "... the 'Coalition of
Peace to Strength'. Among them were personal friends of mine, including
the late General Richard Stilwell and Richard Perle..."
 Ibid., p. 193: "In Pinay's day, the old man himself presided over
the meetings, but the chairmanship of each session was shared out among
others, including Pesenti, Sir Peter Tennant, and myself."
 Franz-Josef Bach's leading role in the Cercle from at least 1980 to
1991 can be concluded from the following two sources:
1993, Brian Crozier, 'Free Agent', p. 193: "In 1980, Violet, who had
serious health problems, asked me to take over the Pinay Cercle. In
practice, I mostly shared the burden with a leading German member of the
Cercle, Franz-Josef Bach..."
1993, Alan Clark, 'Diaries', p. 369 (About Clark's 1991 experience with
the Cercle): "The Cercle, an Atlanticist Society of right-wing
dignitaries, largely compered by Julian Amery and Herr Franz-joseph
 June 10, 1975, New York Times, 'Northrop Apologizes on Saudi
Bribes; Senator Church Urges Sales Reforms'
 1993, Brian Crozier, 'Free Agent', p. 193: "In 1980, Violet, who
had serious health problems, asked me to take over the Pinay Cercle."
 June 29, 1997, the Independent, 'Aitken dropped by the Right's
secret club': "For the past few years Mr Aitken has been chairman of Le
Cercle..." Alan Clark's 1991 description of Aitken seems to indicate
Aitken was being groomed to take over the Cercle.
 Lamont's biography at Benador Associates, for example: "Among his
numerous international activities, he has since 1996 been Chairman of Le
Cercle..." The info on Le Cercle in his biography on this site seems to
have expanded since the last time I checked it. Maybe the webmaster
updated it after I mailed him, asking if he had more info. No response,
as usual with Le Cercle.
 Louis de Rothschild and Max Warburg sponsored Coudenhove's initial
Paneuropa idea. 1984, prof. Kees van der Pijl, 'The Making of an
Atlantic Ruling Class'. His original sources:
A) 1925, Richard Coudenhove-Kalergi, 'Praktischer Idealismus'
B) 1958, Richard Coudenhove-Kalergi, 'Eine Idee erobert Europa. Meine
 March 1986, EIR, Special Report, 'Moscow's Secret Weapon: Ariel
Sharon and the Israeli Mafia': "A third meeting scheduled for Nov.15,
1982 was to include Sharon, Kissinger, Lord Harlech (David Ormsby-Gore),
Prince Johannes von Thurn und Taxis, former Secretary of State Alexander
Haig, Lord Carrington, British Member of Parliament Julian Amery, Ernst
Kux of Neue Zeurcher Zeitung, Robert Moss, Sir Edmund Peck, Armin
Gutowski of the Hamburg West Germany World Economic Archives, and former
British intelligence Mideast station chief Nicholas Elliot, then a
senior MI-6 official. The Nov.15 meeting discussed the implementation of
the New Venice project, through specific investments to be made in
Israel, which was to significantly include massive investments in the
West Bank. An EIR exposé of the meetings in early 1983, and opposition
to the Begin government's West Bank and related policies by President
Reagan, forced a delay in implementation of the policies. " Have no idea
what the original source is.
 1993, Brian Crozier, 'Free Agent', p. 193: "Within the wider Cercle,
a smaller gathering called the Pinay Group met on occasion to discuss
 November 1988, Issue 17, Lobster Magazine, 'Brian Crozier, the
Pinay Circle and James Goldsmith' (quoting and translating from the
Langemann papers): "One recent development is the establishment within
the Circle of a command staff or of an inner circle which then works out
particularly suitable means for action on current political questions."
 2002, David Rockefeller, 'Memoirs', p. 412-413: "Bilderberg
overlapped for a time with my membership in a relatively obscure but
potentially even more controversial body known as the Pesenti Group. I
had first learned about it in October 1967 when Carlo Pesenti... took me
 November 1988, Issue 17, Lobster Magazine, 'Brian Crozier, the
Pinay Circle and James Goldsmith' (quote is from a 1972 ISC report): "Mr
Crozier said that M. Violet, who had commissioned the report on behalf
of the Pinay Committee, had come to London with M. Pinay during that
week... Pinay had given Mr Crozier documents relating to their next
project. M. Pinay had presented a copy of European Security and the
Soviet Problem to President Nixon and Dr Kissinger in America. Earlier
that week he had had a three hour session with President Pompidou,
during which time he had presented him with a copy of the publication in
French. Maitre Violet had also presented copies to a number of German
politicians, mainly Christian Democrats, who are having the report
translated into German. And he had shown a copy to the Spanish Minister
and to the Pope. NSIC in New York had bought 500 of the ISC's initial
print order, and another 500 had been bought by the American Bar
Association. " Lobster tracked down some of the leaked documents of the
Institute for the Study of Conflict, reported on earlier by Time Out. In
the same article Lobster acknowledges that most of the documents were
gone by the time they got to them.
 Crozier details the whole story in his book 'Free Agent'
 January 11, 2005, Daily Telegraph, Stephen Hastings' obituary:
"Hastings's background in MI6 gave him a certain mystique, and he was
often embroiled in controversy concerning Communist infiltration. In
1977 he raised a storm of protest by alleging that five prominent trades
union officials were agents for Communist countries. This information
was culled from tape recordings made by the Czech former spy and
defector Joseph Frolik. The following year, before Mrs Thatcher came
into office, Hastings and Brian Crozier wrote her a paper setting out
"the diabolical nature of the Communist conspiracy" against Britain. Mrs
Thatcher was appalled: "Stephen," she said, "I've read every word and
I'm shattered. What should we do?...""
 2005, BBC, 'The plot against Harold Wilson' (documentary)
 Names given of those preparing or promoting a coup on Harold
*) February 22, 2002, The Independent, 'The Airey Neave File' (often
taking names from old Searchlight Magazine material from earlier times):
Airey Neave; George Kennedy Young; Chapman Pincher; General Sir Anthony
Farrar-Hockley, General Sir Walter Walker; David Stirling.
*) January 9, 2005, The Observer, 'Desperate Lucan dreamt of fascist
coup': 7th Earl of Lucan; Sir James Goldsmith.
*) 2005, BBC, 'The plot against Harold Wilson' (documentary): Lord
Mountbatten of Burma; Earl of Cromartie; Cecil Harmsworth King; Queen
Mother; General Sir Walter Walker; Edward Heath; Brian Crozier; Major
Alexander Greenwood; Chapman Pincher; Lord Alun Chalfont; James Jesus
*) March 13, 2006, The Daily Mail, 'A very British coup': Sir Val
Duncan; Brian Crozier; General Sir Walter Walker; Colonel David Stirling;
Lord Mountbatten of Burma; Queen Mother; Earl of Cromartie; Major
Alexander Greenwood; Chapman Pincher; Cecil Harmsworth King.
 March 13, 2006, The Daily Mail, 'A very British coup': "Brian
Crozier, the security expert who had made a study of communist
insurgency in Britain and would later advise Margaret Thatcher, was
twice invited to address officers at the Royal Military Academy,
Sandhurst. 'I took it upon myself to make them understand the problems
of communism and that they might, at some time, have to intervene to
destroy this danger,' he says. 'There was absolute silence as I
explained how the trades unions were very heavily penetrated by
communists and their sympathisers and were exerting a dangerous
influence on the Labour Party, which largely depended on them. They
wanted to hear every word I said.' After his speech, he received a
number of private phone calls from very senior serving officers. 'I have
never named them and I never will,' declares Crozier. 'They were
standing ready to act if necessary. There were no "buts" about it. If
things had gone on as they were, they would have moved.'"
 Winter 1998, Issue 34, Lobster Magazine, 'Back to the future: the
 1993, Brian Crozier, 'Free Agent', p. 118: "I was one of the
founder members [of the National Association for Freedom], with Lord De
L'Isle as President, Michael Ivans of Aims of Industry, and Robert Moss,
who became the first editor of the Association's journal, the Free
Nation (later renamed to Freedom Today)." Crozier also mention the
involvement of Winston Churchill, son of the famous prime minister.
April 1986, Issue 11, Lobster Magazine, 'The National Association for
Freedom': "Nugent's analysis fails most seriously in completely ignoring
the military/intelligence input into NAFF. At various times NAFF
attracted to its Council Robert Moss and Brian Crozier with links to CIA
and MI6 via Forum World Features and ISC; Stephen Hastings MP (B),
ex-MI6; Sir Gerald Templer (who was NAFF chair at one time and, as we
showed above, played a role in the formation of Civil Assistance) (74);
Sir Robert Thompson (B) who worked with Templer during the Malayan
insurgency and who might claim to be Britain's leading
counter-insurgency expert; Joseph Josten, Director of the Free Czech
Intelligence News Agency (presumably funded by MI6) which played a role
in the anti-Labour Party operations (see below); and W. E. Luke (B) and
Hugh Astor (B) both with war-time experience in MI5."
 November 1988, Issue 17, Lobster Magazine, 'Brian Crozier, the
Pinay Circle and James Goldsmith'. In his book 'Free Agent' Crozier
gives his version of the affair.
 Have a list of Bohemian Grove Lakeside talks from the 1940s to the
1970s. Forgot the source.
 July 2005, The Trumphet, 'From the Editor: German Election
Crisis—and a New Charlemagne' (quotes from other articles)
 Website of the Coudenhove-Kalergi-Stiftung
*) September 5, 1996, The Independent, Amery's obituary: "He threw
himself with zest into the role of a backbencher, intervening, in that
great, rumbling voice of his, on a wide variety of subjects but,
increasingly, in support of the rebel Rhodesian government headed by Ian
Smith, thus showing he was his Imperialist father's son to the core...
When Margaret Thatcher became Prime Minister in 1979 his first major
foreign challenge was the conference of Commonwealth Prime Ministers in
Lusaka in the autumn, where the main topic was to be Rhodesia (the
government of which was now headed by Bishop Abel Muzorewa, with Smith
in close attendance). Rhodesia was the main subject in the adjournment
debate of 25 July, the last occasion for discussion of the matter before
the summer recess. The Prime Minister took great care over her speech,
seeking to placate both those who wanted to bring Muzorewa and Smith
down, and the many on the Conservative back benches who sympathized with
them. She succeeded, with one exception. Amery alone in the debate
divined instantly that she had decided to abandon the Muzorewa-Smith
government and, in a bitter and powerful speech, he castigated her for
so doing. It was to no avail."
*) March 30, 1997, The Independent, 'Courtiers down the centuries;
Profile Robert Cranborne': "In 1978 domestic calm was shattered when
Lord Cranborne's brother Richard was killed by guerrillas while filming
in Rhodesia. The family were strong supporters of the white settlers -
the name of the country's capital, Salisbury (after the 3rd Marquess),
giving away the connection. Robert went to Africa to try to find out how
his brother died. His brother's death seems only to have reinforced his
public support for the whites. During the 1980s he helped organise a
secret meeting between Ian Smith and Tory MPs, and backed sporting links
with apartheid South Africa."
 Simon Regan, 'Who Killed Diana?': "Ironically, Sir James Goldsmith,
was also an associate member of "Le Cercle" Goldsmith had been very much
involved with Circle activities in Africa, and so had Tiny Rowland. It
was very much in Rowland’s interests to keep left-wing governments out
of Africa where the base of his fortune was made. Mainly in diamond
mines which used, almost exclusively, slave labour." This undoubtedly
means there's no evidence of Rowland's Cercle membership. It appears, by
the way, that Nicholas Elliott wasn't really in the same camp as Rowland
and Edward Du Cann. Elliott was among the Lonrho directors that wanted
to get rid of Rowland in 1973. Also, Du Cann severely criticises Elliott
in his biography.
 May 27, 1993, The Times, 'Talking of Tiny; Television': "Rowland
emigrated to Rhodesia and went into mining with the help of his MP, one
Ian Smith (the very same). Before you could say fool's gold Rowland had
formed the London and Rhodesia Mining Company (Lonrho)."
 August 1984, Issue 5, Lobster Magazine, 'The Angolan hostages
episode, and more': "It is said that Dr. Savimbi [founder and leader of
UNITA] was recruited by British intelligence 1964-66.(Covert Action No 4
April/May 1979). Even stronger are his links to Lonrho. Its boss, 'Tiny'
Rowland, has visited Savimbi at the residence in Rabat, lent by the King
of Morocco to Unita's President; and Lonrho executives have visited
Unita's headquarters at Jamba. As long ago as 1974 Rowland provided
Savimbi with a Hawker Siddley 125 and two pilots. He also set up a small
company, Armitage Industrial Holdings, from the Slater/Walker group, to
transport arms and supplies to Unita. (British Intelligence and Covert
Action p193). When Savimbi visited Britain in 1980, Lonrho paid for
expensive receptions hosted by Tory MP Edward Du Cann, a Lonrho
director, at which Savimbi met Tory MPs."
 August 16, 1992, Sunday Times, 'Gadaffi to buy 'SAS package' from
Khashoggi': "Colonel Gadaffi, the Libyan leader, is recruiting
disaffected former members of South Africa's special forces to train his
commandos... Gadaffi is also seeking to buy large amounts of top-quality
military equipment, including a sophisticated radar air defence system,
American M-40 anti-tank weapons, and NBC combat suits designed to
protect troops against the effects of nuclear, biological or chemical
attack. According to documents obtained by The Sunday Times, the secret
deal of special forces training and equipment for Libya has been
negotiated by Adnan Khashoggi, the Saudi arms dealer recently involved
in a controversial partnership between Gadaffi and Tiny Rowland... the
relationship has blossomed, with both Khashoggi and Rowland promising
Libya political influence in the West..."
 1999, Adam Curtis, 'The Mayfair Set' (broadcasted by BBC2).
Documentary mentioned that David Stirling, Jim Slater, James Goldsmith,
Tiny Rowland, and Lord Lucan were all members of the John Aspinall's
Clairmont gambling club. The documentary received the BAFTA Award for
Best Factual Series or Strand in 2000.
 *) January 9, 2005, The Observer, 'Desperate Lucan dreamt of
fascist coup': "when he [Lucan] left Hatchards, the book under his arm
was a Thirties translation of Hitler's political testament, Mein Kampf
... The Countess of Lucan confirmed this weekend that Lucan was an
extremist in his politics: 'He did have very right-wing views, some
might describe them as fascist. I didn't know he was indulging in
extremist reading matter in 1972, although I knew he listened to
recordings of Hitler's speeches at Nuremburg Rallies... he [Lucan] and
his associates, who included casino owner and party host John Aspinall,
and the tycoon Sir James Goldsmith, were increasingly convinced Britain
had fallen victim to a socialist conspiracy. Daily Express journalist
Charles Benson, one of Lucan's friends, said: 'He was very right wing
and never watered it down in front of liberals. He would talk about
hanging and flogging and niggers to get a reaction.' One biographer,
Patrick Marnham, said: 'Seen from the Clermont Club [Lucan's favourite
gambling haunt], the country was starting to resemble the less stable
years of the Weimar Republic. Sir James Goldsmith began to develop his
theory of "the Communist infiltration of the Western media". Over the
smoked salmon and lamb cutlets, the talk turned to the pros and cons of
a British military coup.'"
*) July 27, 1998, The Financial Times, 'The talented but ultimately
unacceptable face of capitalism': "Mr Rowland, born Roland Walter
Fuhrhop, of a German father and Anglo-Dutch mother in India in 1917, was
a natural outsider and maverick. Educated first in Germany, then briefly
in England, he was detained on the Isle of Man during the war, where he
was suspected of Nazi sympathies."
*) According to Wikipedia, John Aspinall once claimed that Britain was
in need of "a Franco-ite counter-revolution".
*) Also: March 13, 2006, Daily Mail, 'A very British Coup': "As for
Colonel David Stirling,... he too believed the situation in Britain had
become so serious that a military coup had to be an option. According to
his friend, Major Alexander Greenwood, Stirling also offered a more
informal way of handling the trades union agitators - provoking them
into a confrontation. 'He thought: "Let's attack the leaders, let's get
them run over by a bus - then they'll start thinking," ' says Major
Greenwood, who had become a stockbroker after his Army career."
 1999, Adam Curtis, 'The Mayfair Set': "David Stirling was a close
friend of Julian Amery's and together they were determined to find a way
to stop Nasser... Stirling and Amery had diner with the foreign
secretary, Alec Douglas Hume, at the White's Club in St. James's. They
proposed a plan: a group of SAS men would mount an operation to fight
the Egyptians, but they would do it privately."
*) January 31, 1997, The Guardian, 'SAS linked to rogue force in
South Africa': "The SAS has been linked to violence by a 'third force'
that threatened to undermine South Africa's transition to majority rule,
in a report considered so explosive it was suppressed by Nelson
Mandela... It confirms the involvement of commando units in random
violence, the use of poison - supplied by the Seventh Medical Division -
by hit squads, and the supply of arms and training to the Zulu-dominated
Inkatha movement... The truth commission document says evidence was
given to Gen Steyn that destabilisation of the government and
neighbouring countries was planned 'to enable the military to step in
credibly to create order'. Preparations for this allegedly involved
stockpiling arms in countries which included Kenya, Zambia, Mauritius
and Portugal, to create 'springboards' for possible military action. It
said there was 'a suggestion that there was close contact with the
British SAS'... As reported by the Guardian, a group of SAS officers
working for a private security firm in Britain [KAS] were hired by
wealthy conservationists in the late 1980s to come to South Africa to
fight elephant and rhinoceros poachers. They became involved with local
intelligence agencies and reportedly took part in paramilitary training.
The British security firm, Kas Enterprises, was owned by Sir David
Stirling, the founder of the SAS, and taken over after his death by Sir
James Goldsmith. The security firm's SAS mission to South Africa was
headed by Ian Crooke, who led the SAS..."
*) September 24, 1999, Kleintje Muurkrant, '"People have been murdered
under the cover of nature protection" - Attorney severely criticises the
World Wide Fund for Nature' (translated from Dutch to English): "It
looks like the WWF to a large degree is responsible for several
projects, especially in South Africa, where in two fases respectively
one and a half million people and subsequently ten thousand people were
killed. In the first phase it was about the battle in the frontline
states against the ANC [the major anti-apartheid movement], especially
against the military wing. The war has been waged under the cover of
nature protection and while protecting nature these people have lobbied
the legislator to adopt a "shoot to kill" policy, whereby it became
legal to shoot poachers in the field before arresting them. Afterwards
you have to say that among the victims were quite a lot of ANC
members... After 1990 the struggle shifted to the territory of South
Africa [instead of the whole of southern Africa]. During that time these
people trained a number of elite black units in the wildlife parks [of
the WWF], like the anti-cattle thieves brigade and the crowbar-unit that
turn out to responsible for the murder of several ten thousand
inhabitants of the townships. This was part of the plan to create a
civil war between the Bantus and the Zulus, that is to say that the ANC
had to be set up against Inkatha [of Inkatha Freedom Party, the second
largest anti-apartheid movement which mainly represented the Zulus] and
that operation has been conducted with the intention of destabilizing
southern Africa. I have seen that these projects were completely
financed by the World Wide Fund for Nature. Of course a certain Prince
[Bernhard] has been involved in that, who has walked around there with a
suitcase full of money, but the question remains how much this man knew
about the projects."
*) Executive Intelligence Review has published some information about
the 1001 Club and Anglo-Dutch policies in southern Africa.
 September 3, 2003, Energy Bulletin, 'Petro-Logistics is very well
connected in the gulf and the Black Sea': "Mr Gerber freely admits that
he first learned about the oil business in the 1970's when he was
helping his country, then known as Rhodesia and now called Zimbabwe, to
circumvent international sanctions and procure illegal oil... Mr Gerber
worked as an economist in the government of Rhodesia... Among his
business associates and friends, Mr Gerber counted Theodore G. Shackley...
Mr Shackley engaged in some oil trading after he retired from the CIA in
1979. Mr Gerber said he was at Mr Shackley's bedside just before he died
last year. His client base, initially built around an oil trader who
worked with Mr Shackley, eventually expanded to include official
agencies, major oil companies -- both private and government-owned --
and other traders." John Deuss was the "oil trader who worked with Mr
 1991, Bo Gritz (ISA and Delta Force commander), 'Called to Serve',
p. 370. Khun Sa's interpreter, in the presence of all Khun Sa's top men,
names Ted Shackley, Santos Trafficante (mafia boss), Richard Armitage,
Daniel Arnold (CIA station chief in Thailand), and Jerry Daniels (CIA
agent) as his former partners in the dope trade. This is recorded on
video and audio tape.
Additional: March 1, 1988, The Fayetteville Observer, 'Gritz to
publicize POW offer': "Gritz said Khun Sa is reputed to have 40,000 men,
women and children under arms and will get out of the drug trade if the
U.S. will aid his insurgency efforts. Gritz first met Khun Sa in Laos in
December 1986. Gritz says he was sent there to find POWs by a man who
works for the National Security Council. Gritz returned with video-taped
conversations with Khun Sa, who said Amercian officials were involved in
drug trafficking during the Vietnam War to finance unofficial wars
against the communists in neutral Laos. Among those Khun Sa implicated,
according to published reports, was Richard Armitage, currently
assistant secretary of defense whose previous mission in Southeast Asia
was to find American prisoners of war. U.S. officials told Gritz they
didn't want to hear about drugs and suggested he forget the incident,
Gritz claims. He said he was told if he persisted, he would serve 15
years as a felon for using a falsified passport. "I've used false
passports many times, every time in pursuit of U.S. POWs," Gritz said,
adding that U.S. officials knew about the practice. "Only James Bond
goes overseas and uses his real name," Gritz said."
 August 17, 1983, Wall Street Journal, 'Bank's Links to Ex-CIA Men
Detailed': "The Australian government report, prepared and released to
Parliament in March by the Commonwealth-New South Wales Joint Task Force
on Drug Trafficking, cites Mr. Shackley as one of the leading characters
whose "background is relevant to a proper understanding of the
activities of the Nugan Hand group and people associated with that
group... The report refers to contacts between Mr. Shackley and Michael
Hand, the currently missing former CIA operator who founded , owned and
managed the Nugan Hand banking group. Mr. Hand's partner, Australian
Frank Nugan, died of a gunshot wound in January, 1980, later ruled a
suicide, and Nugan Hand failed a few months later. Investigations
following Mr. Nugan's death and the failure of the bank revealed
widespread dealings by Nugan-Hand with international heroin syndicates,
and evidence of massive fraud against U.S. and foreign citizens. Many
retired high-ranking Pentagon and CIA officials were executives of or
consultants to Nugan-Hand... Among the high-level Pentagon and CIA
officials associated with Nugan Hand were former CIA director William
Colby [Le Cercle], who was its attorney... " More details can be found
in Jonathan Kwitny's 'The Crimes of Patriots'. After Nugan Hand's cover
was blown and the operation abandoned, the CIA redirected many of the
Nugan Hand operations to another Pacific financial institution based in
Hawaii, named Bishop, Baldwin, Rewald, Dillingham and Wong (BBRDW). By
the end of 1980, BBRDW started setting up offices in Hong Kong, Taiwan,
Indonesia, Singapore, and Australia, all former Nugan Hand locations,
staffing the offices with some of the same personnel. Investigator
Rodney Stich (2006, 'Those Ugly Americans', p. 343) went looking for the
files of the BBRDW and found an envelope with names of important persons
who had an account at the BBRDW under an alias. These included Richard
Armitage (of Gritz's videotape), William Casey (Le Cercle) and two
accounts of George Bush Sr. (who refused Khun Sa's offer to stop the
massive heroin trade in return for basic economic and diplomatic
 June 28, 2005, Wall Street Journal, 'A Cartel and Its Snake oil -
The Saudis claim to have huge oil reserves. Do they really?': "As a
result, the world's most reliable source for OPEC production is a little
company called Petrologistics, located over a grocery store in Geneva.
Conrad Gerber, the principal, claims to have spies in every OPEC port.
For all we know, Mr. Gerber is making up his numbers, but everyone --
including the Paris-based International Energy Agency -- takes him
seriously, since OPEC produces nothing better." Review about the 2005
book of Matthew Simmons, 'Twilight in the Desert: The Coming Saudi Oil
Shock and the World Economy'.
 January 15-21, 1998, Le Nouvel Observateur, Interview with Zbigniew
Brzezinski: "According to the official version of history, CIA aid to
the Mujahadeen began during 1980, that is to say, after the Soviet army
invaded Afghanistan, 24 Dec 1979. But the reality, secretly guarded
until now, is completely otherwise Indeed, it was July 3, 1979 that
President Carter signed the first directive for secret aid to the
opponents of the pro-Soviet regime in Kabul. And that very day, I wrote
a note to the president in which I explained to him that in my opinion
this aid was going to induce a Soviet military intervention... That
secret operation was an excellent idea. It had the effect of drawing the
Russians into the Afghan trap and you want me to regret it? The day that
the Soviets officially crossed the border, I wrote to President Carter.
We now have the opportunity of giving to the USSR its Vietnam war.
Indeed, for almost 10 years, Moscow had to carry on a war unsupportable
by the government, a conflict that brought about the demoralization and
finally the breakup of the Soviet empire... Nonsense! [that Islamic
fundamentalism represents a world menace] It is said that the West had a
global policy in regard to Islam. That is stupid. There isn't a global
Islam. Look at Islam in a rational manner and without demagoguery or
emotion. It is the leading religion of the world with 1.5 billion
followers. But what is there in common among Saudi Arabian
fundamentalism, moderate Morocco, Pakistan militarism, Egyptian
pro-Western or Central Asian secularism? Nothing more than what unites
the Christian countries."
 September 23, 2001, Pittsburgh Post-Gazette, 'How a holy war
against the Soviets turned on the US': "In 1986, Director of Central
Intelligence William Casey stepped up the war against the Soviet Union
by taking three significant, but at that time highly secret, measures.
He persuaded the U.S. Congress to provide the Afghan fighters known as
Mujaheddin, "holy warriors" in Arabic, with American-made Stinger
anti-aircraft missiles to shoot down Soviet planes and to send U.S.
advisers to train the guerrillas. Until then, no U.S.-made weapons or
personnel had been used directly in the war effort. U.S.-financed
weapons provided to the Afghans until then had been generally of Warsaw
Pact manufacture, to provide deniability of U.S. support for the
Mujaheddin. The CIA, Britain's MI6 intelligence service and Pakistan's
Inter-Services Intelligence agency (ISI) also agreed on a provocative
plan to launch guerrilla attacks into the then Soviet Republics of
Tajikistan and Uzbekistan, the soft Muslim underbelly of the Soviet
state from where Soviet troops in Afghanistan received their supplies...
Casey was delighted with the news, and on his next secret trip to
Pakistan crossed the border into Afghanistan with the late Pakistani
President Zia al-Haq to meet the Mujaheddin groups... Third, Casey
committed CIA support to a long-standing ISI initiative to recruit
radical Muslims from around the world to come to Pakistan and fight
alongside the Afghan Mujaheddin. The ISI had promoted this idea since
1982, and by now all the other players had their reasons for supporting
 September 1, 1991, Washington Post, 'Pakistan's illicit economies
affect BCCI bank...': "According to diplomatic sources, Saudi
intelligence chief, Prince Turki bin Faisal -- working with Pakistan's
main intelligence agency -- distributed over $1 billion in cash to
Afghan guerrillas during the late 1980s... The financial transactions
were handled principally between Saudi intelligence and Pakistan's
Inter-Services Intelligence agency (ISI), the main liaison between the
United States, Saudi Arabia and the Afghan guerrillas, the sources
said... As for drug trafficking, the sources acknowledged that
Pakistan's ISI routinely condoned heroin manufacture and sales by some
Afghan guerrilla groups. But they said there were also occasions when
ISI cooperated with U.S. government efforts to eradicate poppy fields in
*) February 22, 1992, The Seattle Times: "Former CIA Director
William Casey met secretly over several years with the Pakistani head of
the illicit Bank of Credit and Commerce International, a television
report to be aired this weekend alleges. A CIA spokesman denied the
allegation, which is included in a 90-minute NBC News report on BCCI to
be broadcast tomorrow morning... The NBC report, quoting unnamed BCCI
sources, alleges Casey had secret meetings with Abedi every few months
from 1984 through 1986 in a $2,000-per-night presidential suite at the
Madison Hotel in Washington. The two men discussed the Iran-contra
arms-for-hostages transactions and CIA arms shipments to the rebels in
Afghanistan, the report says." More information on Abedi can be found in
the 1001 Club membership list of PEHI.
*) December 13, 2003, The Guardian, 'Smart money' (a combined review of
Loretta Napoleoni's 'Modern Jihad: Tracing the Dollars Behind the Terror
Networks' and Jeffrey Robinson's 'The Sink: Terror, Crime and Dirty
Money in the Offshore World'): "William Casey, Reagan's CIA chief, used
Pakistan and its BCCI bank as fronts to train Afghan rebels against the
Soviets. Covert operations required a "black network" within the bank
and its state equivalent, the notorious ISI. The bank financed and
brokered covert arms deals, complete with full laundry service. The
short and logical step from there was a BCCI/ISI/CIA move into drug
smuggling to feed the needy, and leaky, money pipeline to the Mujahedin.
The Pakistan-Afghan connection became the biggest single supplier of
heroin to the US, meeting 60% of demand, with annual profits a
stratospheric $100-$200 billion."
 August 7, 1991, Washington Post, 'BCCI Adept at Courting the
Powerful and Rich': "In Britain, two senior Conservative members of
Parliament and one former member listed themselves as consultants to
BCCI -- part of what has been described as a global network of highly
placed advisers. They are Sir Julian Ridsdale, a former defense
minister; Julian Amery; and former Parliament member Sir Frederic
Bennett, an honorary director of BCCI in Hong Kong until 1986 who
received $10,000 a year from BCCI, according to the Sunday Observer.
Amery declined to tell the Observer how much he received and could not
be reached for comment here, but he has said he advised the bank on
international affairs." Bennett was an important aristocrat whose
biography can be found in the membership list of Le Cercle attached to
this article (in Amery's). Bennett is an unconfirmed member of Le Cercle,
but was heavily involved in the adventures of Brian Crozier and Julian
 1993, Brian Crozier, 'Free Agent', p. 135-136
 Ibid., info about The 61 is spread over the whole book.
 Ibid., p. 135
 Ibid., p. 142
 Ibid., p. 189-190: "In addition to our own  network, we gained
access to a number of existing networks, both private and official. In
Germany, we had three prime sources. One was the ex-diplomat turned
politician, Count Hans Huyn, a close friend of the Bavarian leader,
Franz Josef Strauss, and a leading authority on Soviet policy."
 1997, Robert Hutchinson, Their Kingdom Come, p. 359: "Casey's first
reaction was to fly to Rome and consult the Pope. He and two other
members of Reagan's inner team, Alexander Haig and Vernon Walters, were
Knights of the Sovereign Order of Malta, which gave them instant and
confidential access to the papal apartments."
 2005, Daniele Ganser, 'Nato's Secret Armies', p. 70-71: "Vernon
Walters advised them, a notorious CIA Cold Warrior 'who has been
involved directly or indirectly in the overthrow of more governments
than any other official of the US government'. Walters declared that
if Kennedy allowed the PSI [Partito Socialisto Italiano] to win the
elections the US should invade the country... Kennedy had allowed Italy
to shift to the left. As the Socialists were given cabinet posts the
Italian Communists, due to their performance at the polls, also demanded
to be rewarded with posts in the cabinet and in May 1963 the large union
of the construction workers demonstrated in Rome. The CIA was alarmed
and members of the secret Gladio army disguised as police and civilians
smashed the demonstration leaving more than 200 demonstrators injured.
 But for Italy the worst was yet to come. In November 1963, US
President Kennedy was assassinated in Dallas, Texas, under mysterious
circumstances. And five months later the CIA with the SIFAR, the Gladio
secret army and the paramilitary police carried out a right-wing coup
d'etat which forced the Italian Socialists to leave their cabinet posts
they had held only for such a short period. Code-named 'Piano Solo' the
coup was directed by General Giovanni De Lorenzo whom Defence Minister
Giulio Andreotti [Le Cercle] of the DCI [hard-right Democrazia
Christiana Italiana] had transferred from chief of SIFAR to chief of the
Italian paramilitary police, the Carabinieri. In close cooperation with
CIA secret warfare expert Vernon Walters, William Harvey, chief of the
CIA station in Rome, and Renzo Rocca, Director of the Gladio units
within the military secret service SID, De Lorenzo escalated the secret
 June 1992, Issue 23, Lobster Magazine, 'Heritage of Stone; JFK and
JFK': "Nearly ten years ago former BOSS [South African intelligence]
agent Gordon Winter replied to a letter from Steve Dorril about BOSS's
view of the assassination with the answer that BOSS files had attributed
it to 'a General named Walters'. In 1963 Vernon Walters was Military
Attaché in Rome. (It may be a coincidence that in Walters' autobiography
there is nothing at all on what he was doing in 1963.) Also in Rome in
1963 as CIA station chief was William Harvey, who, it is widely
reported, hated the Kennedys."
 February 15, 2002, Palm Beach Daily News, 'War hero, statesman to
be buried at Arlington': "When Eisenhower later became president, he
selected Gen. Walters to serve as his staff assistant. During the
Kennedy administration, he served as a military attache to Brazil and
later, Italy." I noticed the same problem as Dorril. Not only in
Walter's autobiography, but also in his Who's Who there are one or more
gaps in his biography in the early 1960s. Also, hardly anywhere in the
newspapers his involvement in Rome is mentioned.
 This is more or less the conclusion that can be drawn from the
work of Wim Dankbaar. In 2006, a three-hour documentary was broadcasted
on Dutch prime time television based on Dankbaar's research (good thing
I put aside my prejudices and just watched it). The investigation for
the documentary was headed by Peter R. de Vries, Holland's most famous
crime reporter. Normally de Vries investigates well known public cases,
usually in cooperation with the police. In short, the three hour
documentary laid down almost the whole JFK conspiracy and verified the
possibility of James Files' basic claims. The documentary was incredibly
impressive, contrasting next day's news reports which were hopelessly
superficial. One or two weeks after the broadcast of the initial
documentary, de Vries did a short follow up and proved the (prominent)
critics wrong that Files couldn't have used a Remington Firebolt and
couldn't have left a teeth mark in the casing of the bullet. De Vries
found an owner of a Remington Firebolt, inquired about the guns
accuracy, fired it, and left his teeth mark in the casing. Very
impressive reporting... and yet it is so simple to do for the mainstream
media. One of the documentary's conclusions was that Kennedy's body
could be dug up to see if the bullet contained mercury, as was claimed
by Files and hinted to by at least one forensic expert looking at the
photos. Dankbaar was referred to Files by FBI agent Zack Shelton.
Although Files could well remain a controversial figure, it is known
that he has worked for the CIA and as a hitman for Charles Nicolette.
Claims that the JFK assassination was the work of a joint mafia-CIA
operation are almost universal, the reason for the assassination being
that Kennedy was far too soft on communism in countries as Italy and for
refusing to give crucial air support in the Bay of Pigs invasion. In
1975 the Church Committee was established to investigate the wide range
of abuses reported about the CIA. George De Mohrenschildt (best friend
of Lee Harvey Oswald in Dallas) and Charles Nicolette were murdered on
March 29, 1975. Sam Giancana was assassinated on June 19, 1975. Jimmy
Hoffa disappeared in July 1975. Johnny Roselli was murdered in September
 2002 (third edition), John Cooley, 'Unholy Wars', p. 17: "... de
Marenches, a big, bluff man who his close American friend, General
Vernon A. Walters, a Cold Warrior and CIA official called a "real French
Additionally: November 23, 1992, Washington Times, 'Anti-Everybody':
"Vernon Walters... could be found overseas last week being inducted into
the Al-Mamlaka al-Maghribiya's Royal Academy. That's Kingdom of Morocco,
for short... Gen. Walters, a resident of Virginia, was sponsored for the
honor by Alexandre de Marenches... Gen. Walters is a personal friend of
Morocco's King Hassan II." At least one meeting of Le Cercle has been
held in Morocco.
 2002 (third edition), John Cooley, 'Unholy Wars', p. 15
 November 1988, Issue 17, David Teacher for Lobster Magazine, 'The
Pinay Circle and Destabilisation in Europe': "Strauss was a close friend
of Alexandre de Marenches and was a frequent visitor to the SDECE's
headquarters during Marenches' time."
 2002 (third edition), John Cooley, 'Unholy Wars', p. 106: "Before
he left, de Marenches warned Reagan that the rank-and-file staff of the
CIA, where a mutual friend, William Casey, would soon be taking over as
chief, was not to be trusted."
 Website of Baron de Bonvoisin: "Largely because of B. de B, Raes
was forced to resign in 1990... B. de Bonvoisin was highly regarded by
the head of the French secret services, Alexandre de Marenches, but the
latter had no esteem for Albert Raes... [bashes Albert Raes a bit
more]... he [Raes] tried to associate B. de B with the extreme right, a
trick often used by the Soviet secret services."" On the same page:
"Professor Lode Van Outrive concluded that: " Several times the
Americans tried to convince Raes to concentrate first and foremost on
the Eastern block countries whereas he seemed more interested in
targeting extreme right wing movements. This clearly bothered the
Americans who got him to resign.""
Bonvoisin has been caught faking KGB files that were ment to prove a
vast left conspiracy against him.
 January 2002, interview by Matt Ehlingfor for Declassified Radio
(which doesn't exist anymore). http://sf.indymedia.org/print.php?id=113300
*) April 23, 1975, Winnipeg Free Press, 'Mini-Cold War Weakens
Portugal, NATO Ties': "Carlucci's image has been tarred with allegations
that he is a top CIA operative assigned to destabilize Portugal and
reverse the Socialist thrust of the revolution..."
*) 1977, Phil Mailer, 'Portugal, the Impossible Revolution', chapter 8:
"For three days the left and workers' group exercised total power. An
article about Spinola in the Parisian paper Temoignage Chretien (March
6) had said that US ambassador Frank Carlucci (who had CIA connections)
had given the go-ahead for a right-wing take-over in Portugal. Otelo's
[head moderate MFA] remark on March 11 that 'Carlucci had better have
plans to leave the country or face the con-sequences' was seen as
related to the failed coup. Kissinger, according to a Sunday Times
(London) report, had sanctioned the use of the CIA."
*) December 22, 1977, The Charleston Gazette, 'Envoy May Be Named CIA
Deputy Director': "The Carter administration plans to appoint Ambassador
Frank C. Carlucci, currently the United States envoy to Portugal, as
Deputy Director of Central Intelligence..."
 For detailed information on Spinola look in the membership list,
where a number of original sources are quoted.
 1993, Brian Crozier, 'Free Agent', p. 184-185
 Ibid. p. 230-231: "I had put together an impressive team of
helpers in America [in tracking down and interrogating two Cuban
defectors]. Robert Moss was one of them... Others who helped were...
Donald Jameson; who for many years had been the CIA's top specialist on
the Soviet Union. Apart from his fluent Russian, he also spoke Spanish
and had a special interest in Latin America." This was about 1985.
 March 7, 1997, The Augusta Chronicle, 'Defector caught up in
dispute - Former intelligence officer denies US prisoners of war taken
in Korean wars': "At least two former U.S. intelligence officers say Mr.
Rastvorov told them in separate conversations after his defection that
he knew U.S. troops captured in the 1950-53 Korean War had been taken to
Siberia and exploited by Soviet intelligence. One of those conversations
is summarized in a long-secret White House memo that was declassified
last spring... Publicity about the memo prompted the Pentagon to contact
Mr. [Yuri] Rastvorov to see how much he knew. At a private meeting last
Oct. 10, Mr. Rastvorov denied having any knowledge about U.S. POWs in
Siberia. Further, he said that the statements in the White House memo
were not his, and that he did not recall that any of the debriefings he
underwent with U.S. officials in the 1950s dealt with POWs... Philip
Corso, an intelligence officer in Korea during the war and later a
National Security Council staff member in the Eisenhower White House, is
equally emphatic that Mr. Rastvorov told him in a Jan. 28, 1955,
debriefing that Americans had been taken to Siberia as part of a covert
Soviet intelligence operation... Separate from Mr. Corso's assertions,
Donald Jameson, a retired CIA officer, has said he recalls Mr. Rastvorov
telling him in the 1950s that U.S. POWs had been taken to the Soviet
Union and that Mr. Rastvorov had estimated it was 10 to 15 aviators. Mr.
Jameson helped handle the Rastvorov debriefing after his defection."
 January 25, 2003, The Gold Coast Bulletin, 'Focus': "The
experiment was only one episode in a remarkable research program run by
the Defence Intelligence Agency and CIA from 1972 until 1996. The
project, known variously as Grill Flame, Sun Streak, and finally Star
Gate, explored a variety of parapsychological phenomena but especially
one known as 'remote viewing', the process by which someone in, say,
Maryland visualises an office in the Kremlin and describes it both in
words and drawings... The outlines of Star Gate have been sketched
before, but new details of the project have come to light in 73,000
pages of previously classified records released by the CIA last November
and made available just this month. (An additional 20,800 pages are
undergoing review, and 17,700 pages were deemed too sensitive to
release.)... In 1972, the CIA gave the institute $50,000 to study remote
viewing. Russell Targ, who joined the project in 1972... Two years
later, the institute received the geographical co-ordinates of a "Soviet
site of ongoing operational significance.'' The target was
Semipalatinsk, in what is now Kazakhstan. A remote viewer provided a
layout of a cluster of buildings and drew a puzzling, 'damned big
crane'. He identified the underground facility as storage for Soviet
missiles. Satellite photos verified the viewer's report, according to
Donald Jameson, then a senior CIA Soviet specialist, who called the
event a 'turning point'. One group within the agency refused to look at
the Semipalatinsk data, objecting to the unscientific methodology.
Another group called the process 'demonic'. When the CIA cut the program
in 1975, the funds shifted first to the Air Force and then, in 1980, to
the Defence Intelligence Agency. Between 1979 and 1994 Fort Meade's
viewing site conducted roughly 250 projects involving thousands of
missions." (With all these (in this case Catholic) religious extremists
in the top tiers of the CIA it's no wonder these projects were seen as
*) December 14, 2002, New York Times, 'Theodore Shackley,
Enigmatic C.I.A. Official, Dies at 75': "In 1979, Mr. Shackley retired
from the C.I.A. and founded Research Associates International Ltd., a
Bethesda consulting firm specializing in analyzing risks and protecting
*) 2002, Chief Executive Publishing (more detailed date and a headline
were not given; scanned from some book or document, judging by one or
two common OCR errors): "In 1986, deals with the Soviets were lucrative,
wrote Donald F.B. Jameson, a former member of the CIA and vice president
of Research Associates International, a risk assessment firm in
Arlington, Va. "The Soviets pay above-market prices and pay promptly.
Negotiating can be trying, even for the big boys," he wrote in Chief
Executive in a spring article titled, 'Trading with the Soviets'..."But
if you have what they want and are persistent, you may well end up with
a good deal, and after having done one deal, others usually follow.
Trading with the Soviets is a race that goes to the strong," Jameson
*) Additional: July 23, 1998, Michael Ruppert, 'The POWs, CIA and
Drugs': "A former CIA officer told me in 1995 that Ollie North was
leasing office space for his 1995 Senate run from Shackley's company,
Research Associates International, in Rosslyn, Virginia."
 1993, Brian Crozier, Free Agent, p. 243: "... the 'Coalition of
Peace to Strength'. Among them were personal friends of mine, including
the late General Richard Stilwell and Richard Perle..."
*) July 23, 1998, Michael Ruppert, 'The POWs, CIA and Drugs': "The
ISA, which ran Gritz's mission, was created by Army General Richard
Stilwell. It has been repeatedly linked to drug smuggling by sources
including the daughter of Col. Albert Carone who served as Oliver
North's bagman and bill-payer during the eighties. Records left behind
after Carone's death in 1990 and eyewitness statements clearly indicate
that Carone handled both drugs and drug money for CIA, North and the NSC.
Carone's personal phone book contains the home addresses and telephone
numbers of William Casey [Le Cercle; Wackenhut legal counsel; CIA; SMOM;
Bohemian Grove camp Mandalay], Gambino crime boss Pauly Castellano and
Stilwell [Le Cercle]." (Ruppert has written a full report about the
Albert Carone affair. Carone was a Knight of Malta and highest level
insider to the Genovese crime family)
*) Colby was a director and attorney to the Nugan Hand Bank, which
laundered large amounts of drug profits. August 17, 1983, Wall Street
Journal, 'Bank's Links to Ex-CIA Men Detailed': Among the high-level
Pentagon and CIA officials associated with Nugan Hand were former CIA
director William Colby, who was its attorney... "
*) Additional: Michael Ruppert is probably the most central person in
CIA drug investigations, having written about virtually all of the
others writers and interviewed most of the witnesses. These witnesses
include: Cele Castillo, Mike Levine, Dee Ferdinand, David Sabow, Brad
Ayers, Tosh Plumley, Bo Abbott, Daniel Sheehan, Gene Wheaton, John
Mattes, Jack Terrell, Winfred Richardson, Michelle Cooper, Bill Tyree,
Dois G. "Chip" Tatum, Col. Edward Cutolo, Col. Bo Gritz, Al Martin,
David MacMichael and Ralph McGehee.
 December 5, 1986, Philadelphia Inquirer, 'Secord lost position
over disclosure form': "Secord was removed from an unpaid position on
the Special Operations Planning and Advisory Group, an 11-member panel
dominated by retired senior generals who advise the secretary of defense
and his top military and civilian officials on special and covert
operations policy... Current members of the group, all retired from
active duty, include:... Air Force Lt. Gen. Leroy Manor... They advise
the secretary of defense, Caspar W. Weinberger; the assistant secretary
of defense for international security affairs, Richard L. Armitage, and
the commander of the Joint Special Operations Agency, Air Force Maj.
Gen. Thomas Kelly." More detailed quote in General Stilwell's bio in the
*) Secord was operational head of the covert private arms network
set up by Casey and North in 1984. He was involved with Shackley in
Nugan Hand. September 11, 1988, Washington Post, 'The ultimate
conspiracy theory': "Serving first as the CIA's East Asia operations
chief and later as assistant deputy director of clandestine operations,
Shackley (with his trusty aide Clines) supposedly stole tons of U.S.
weapons from South Vietnam and stashed them in Thailand. Later, Sheehan
claims, Shackley, Clines, Secord and a member of the "shooter team"
named Rafael "Chi-Chi" Quintero siphoned off millions of dollars in
Southeast Asia opium profits and laundered them through the mysterious
Nugan Hand bank of Australia."
*) August 17, 1983, Wall Street Journal, 'Bank's Links to Ex-CIA Men
Detailed': "Among the high-level retired Pentagon and CIA officials
associated with Nugan Hand were former CIA director William Colby, who
was its attorney; three-star Gen. LeRoy J. Manor, former chief of staff
for the pacific, who headed its Philippine operation..."
*) Additional: September 21, 1980, Boston Globe, letter from a reader to
the editor: "I fail to understand why an article such as "Heroin,
banking and the CIA" would be relegated to page 42 (Sept. 7). The
incredible details in Alan Berger's well-written article are front-page
material. The implications, for example, in the connection between Gen.
Ray Manors involvement with the defunct Nugan Hand International banking
front and his responsibility as a CIA member to analyze the Iranian
hostage incident are frightening, to say the least."
 1991, Bo Gritz (ISA and Delta Force commander), 'Called to Serve',
p. 370. See reference 85 for more info.
 1993, Brian Crozier, Free Agent, p. 185
 January 28, 1990, Sunday Times, 'How the Colombian cocaine chain
leads to Fidel Castro'
*) January 28, 1990, Washington Post, 'The Case Against Noriega':
"On Monday, November 14, 1983, Noriega's entourage took off for
Washington... all expenses paid by the U.S. government. Almost two whole
days, however, were set aside for the institutions that already had
long-standing working relations with Noriega. At CIA headquarters in
Langley, Noriega was swept off for a meeting with CIA Director William
Casey. Back in Panama, Noriega would later boast about his four-hour
lunch with Casey..."
*) August 23, 1991, The Miami Herald, 'Noriega: CIA, DEA OKd Deals':
"Manuel Noriega says he had good reasons for allowing drugs and guns to
slip through Panama: The last seven CIA directors, including George
Bush, asked him to help with the guns, while four directors of the Drug
Enforcement Administration sought his help on the drugs... The weapons
shipments were destined for Nicaragua and Honduras, the papers said.
Besides Bush, the CIA directors who asked Noriega to allow them to
travel through Panama included Richard Helms, William Colby, James
Schlesinger, Stansfield Turner, William Casey and William Webster... The
DEA directors who purportedly asked Noriega to allow drugs to pass
through his country included Terrance Burk, Francis Mullen, Jack Lawn
and John Ingersoll... Diane Cossin, a spokeswoman for the U.S.
attorney's office, said the prosecution will present evidence that links
Noriega's BCCI money and drugs."
 1993, Brian Crozier, Free Agent, p. 243: "Among them were personal
friends of mine, including the late General Richard Stilwell and Richard
*) November 22, 2001, San Antonio Express-News, 'Ex-CIA chief
picks Baghdad as next U.S. target Case builds against Iraq': "Woolsey
and Richard Perle, a defense official in the Reagan administration, say
the destruction of Saddam's government is the next logical step for the
United States' anti-terror campaign. The rationale for toppling Saddam,
their argument goes, stretches back several years and isn't linked to a
specific incident... Mohammed Atta, who was believed to be the
ringleader behind the Sept. 11 suicide hijackings, met with Iraqi
intelligence officials in Prague, Czech Republic, several months before
*) May 13, 2002, Seattle Times, 'Steam rises over meeting that may not
have occurred': "Five months before the Sept. 11 attacks, a man who may
have been Mohammed Atta met in the Czech capital of Prague with a man
who may have been an Iraqi intelligence agent. Or maybe he didn't. If
that sounds uncertain, so is the shadowy battle going on in Washington,
D.C., and Prague over whether the meeting took place and what happened
if it did... Government ministers in Prague reported the meeting soon
after the terrorist attacks. U.S. officials seized on the report. But
intelligence officials in Prague then began leaking stories that the
meeting did not happen after all. The Czech government seems confused:
The Foreign Ministry denies the meeting happened; the Interior Ministry
insists it did. In the past two weeks, U.S. officials, speaking on
condition of anonymity, have said that they, too, now doubt the meeting
took place. The Bush administration refuses to comment on the record.
White House officials are said to be furious at the leaked denials.
Hawks rail against what they see as a covert campaign by doves,
especially in the State Department and the Central Intelligence Agency,
to derail an attack on Iraq. "The evidence (for the meeting) is
overwhelming, as convincing now as it was then," said Richard Perle,
chairman of the Pentagon's Defense Policy Board. "People who are raising
questions now are just slinking about, not doing so openly. Why? They
have their own policy agenda, which is to limit the president's
options."... In December, New York Times columnist William Safire called
it an "undisputed fact" and said it took place at a hotel. Four months
later, he reported that it was a "fact" but said the meeting was at the
airport. Reports to the contrary were a "disinformation campaign,"
Safire said. In an article titled "The U.S. Must Strike at Saddam
Hussein," Perle called the meeting "well-documented." Former CIA
Director James Woolsey used it to buttress a call for an attack on Iraq,
as did Weekly Standard Editor William Kristol in a similar article."
*) September 8, 2002, Agence France Presse, 'Mohammed Atta met Saddam
prior to September 11: US official': "Mohammed Atta consulted Saddam
Hussein prior to leading the suicide attacks on the World Trade Center
on September 11, according to Richard Perle, an advisor to the US
defense secretary. "Mohammed Atta met Saddam Hussein in Baghdad prior to
September 11. We have proof of that, and we are sure he wasn't just
there for a holiday," Perle told Italy‘s business daily "Il Sole 24
Ore". "The meeting is one of the motives for an American attack on
Iraq," added Perle, who is chairman of the Defense Policy Board and
consultant to US Defense Secretary Donald Rumsfeld, a leading advocate
of an attack on Iraq. "The main objective of the American administration
is to avoid weapons of mass destruction falling into the wrong hands,"
 According to David Rockefeller, who was invited to the Cercle in
the late 1960s, only he and Kissinger would generally attend from the
United States. Both of these men had some issues with Cercle members.
 June 1993, Lobster Magazine, Issue 25, Dr. Armen Victorian,
'Non-lethality: John B. Alexander, the Pentagon's Penguin': "The United
States Global Strategy Council is an independent think tank,
incorporated in 1981. It focuses on long-range strategic issues. The
founding members were Clare Boothe Luce, General Maxwell Taylor, General
Albert Wedemeyer, Dr. Ray Cline (Co-chair), Jeane Kirkpatrick
(Co-chair), Morris Leibman, Henry Luce III, J. William Middendorf II,
Admiral Thomas H. Moorer USN (retd), General Richard Stilwell (retd.),
Dr Michael A. Daniles (President), Dr. Dalton A. West (Executive Vice
President). Its Research Directors were Dr. Yonah Alexander, Dr Roger
Fontaine, Robert L. Katula and Janet Morris."
 May 26, 1983, Daily Oklahoman, 'Edwards Made Council Chief': "Rep.
Mickey Edwards, Oklahoma City Republican, on Wednesday was named
chairman of the United States Global Strategy Council. In an inaugural
address, he said the organization must form ""a comprehensive global
strategy'' and then ""sell it'' to the public. The conservatively
oriented organization was formed about five months ago. It's purpose:
""To create an improved climate for sophisticated global strategic
thinking by initiating strategy research, by publicizing the importance
and potentials of global strategy and by proposing alternative strategic
options on current and future global problems to policymakers,
legislators and the public.'' The 74-member council includes William E.
Colby, former CIA director; Arnaud De Borchgrave, author and columnist;
Lt. Gen. Daniel O. Graham, director of High Frontier and former director
of the Defense Intelligence Agency; retired Adm. Bobby Inman, former
deputy director of the CIA; retired Lt. Gen Brent Scowcroft, who headed
the Presidential Commission on the MX; Dr. Edward Teller, nuclear
physicist; and Clare Booth Luce, author, former congresswoman and former
ambassador to Italy. Edwards told the group that U.S. goals are ""often
foggy'' and that the nation sometimes helps its enemies."
 February 17, 1994, Christian Science Monitor, 'Nonlethal Weapons
Offer a Faustian Bargain': "Over the past few years, a new kind of
nonviolent-weapons research has quietly gained a foothold in the
Pentagon and at the laboratories that have long designed this nation's
most destructive arms... Disabling effects are achieved through such
temporary expedients as anti-traction agents, calmatives, stun guns, and
supercaustics. More long-lasting changes result from using laser
weapons, high-powered microwaves, and nonnuclear EMP... Among
nonlethality's most ardent proponents is Ray Cline, a former CIA deputy
director who after his retirement established a United States Global
Strategy Council to promote a ``national nonlethality initiative'' and
other policies to advance American interests in an uncertain new global
order. Co-chaired by conservative luminaries like former United Nations
ambassador Jeane Kirkpatrick and an array of former generals, admirals,
and defense secretaries, the council formed a nonlethality policy review
group in 1990 that bent the ears of Vice President Dan Quayle, Chief of
Staff John Sununu, and National Security Adviser Brent Scowcroft,
persuading the Bush administration to establish a Nonlethality Task
Force under the secretary of defense."
*) March 13, 1992, The Plain Dealer, 'Scientist says Star Wars is
huge waste': "[describing Star Wars:] Nine years and $25 billion later,
all we have is a still-expanding, high-risk, space-age national security
pork barrel for contractors and top government managers... Star Wars was
born in deception and raised in cynicism. In "Teller's War," William J.
Broad, a reporter for the New York Times, details the false data
reported on the X-ray laser, the first purported breakthrough in
antimissile research... The point of SDI has been to keep the research
and development money flowing... Multiple contractors are assigned to do
the same work - and then to do it again and again. As a rule, the
studies are not read. They get stored at different locations outside the
Pentagon until room is needed for new ones. Then they are sometimes
destroyed without the notice required by law... For example, my research
was frustrated because about 3,000 documents were illegally destroyed in
Huntsville, Ala., because of a lack of storage space... Approximately
200 studies from five major contractors showed that Star Wars, at a net
cost of more than $1.37 trillion, would let through from 2% to 10% of
enemy missiles at least. Other contractors estimated that an antimissile
project that cost from $539 billion to $737 billion would deflect only
65% to 70% of enemy missiles... Star Wars officials mask how funds are
spent, often shifting money from one program to another in what was
informally known as a system of "IOUs" and "taxes." SDIO regularly gave
projects only 50% to 80% of the funds they had been allocated. When the
program managers would ask for the balance, they were often told the
money had been spent elsewhere. As far as Congress knew, the Pentagon
had allocated the money as directed. Hundreds of millions have been
secretly diverted this way. I was present once when Dr. Edward Teller of
the University of California Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory said
he needed $20 million for more studies of an already completed
experiment on the X-ray laser. The SDI director, Lt. Gen. James
Abrahamson, responded to the effect: "You've got it. I'll give you an
IOU. Just go ahead."... The free-electron laser passed initial
laboratory tests in late 1983 with flying colors, only to be cut back
and eventually mothballed in 1991 because it threatened a competing
higher cost alternative being developed at the Livermore laboratory. SDI
administrators have bypassed low-cost tests involving actual ballistic
missiles because they would have reduced the need for more paper
studies. This occurred with the free-electron laser in 1983, as well as
with the Mid-infrared Chemical Laser, and the Sealight Beam Director in
1990." The author of this article was Aldric Saucier, who was persecuted
for publicly criticizing Star Wars. Many US newspapers attacked the
Pentagon and the White House in 1992 for persecuting this scientist
although few described in any detail the diversion of funds.
*) March 2, 1992, New York Times, 'Scientist Said to Assert Fraud in
'Star Wars'': "Defense Secretary Dick Cheney has been ordered by a
special council to investigate assertions made by a Pentagon scientist
that officials of the "Star Wars" anti-missile defense program had
violated the law and engaged in "gross waste of funds," The Washington
Post reported in Monday's issue... The Post said the Office of Special
Council had issued the directive on Friday after having found a
"substantial likelyhood" that Mr. Saucier's accusations were
well-founded. It added that the directive had also conferred
"whistle-blower" states on Mr. Saucier, who was dismissed last month
from his job with the Star Wars project [after complaining too loud]."
Aldric Saucier does not seem to have been alone in his criticism on
*) October 31, 1986, Chicago Sun-Times, 'No way to test SDI, experts in
survey say': "A majority of the nation's scientific elite in fields
basic to strategic defense research doubt that President Reagan's
proposed "star wars" system can be tested enough to guarantee it will
thwart a full-scale nuclear attack, a survey showed yesterday. The
survey, released by Sen. William Proxmire (D-Wis.), an opponent of the
Strategic Defense Initiative, was conducted by a Cornell University
research unit among the 663 members of the National Academy of Science
with expertise in such fields as physics, chemistry, mathematics and
engineering. The survey received results from 451 NAS members, or about
71 percent of those contacted. Of those responding, 78 percent said
prospects were either extremely poor or poor that a survivable and
cost-effective SDI system could be built within the next 25 years. Four
percent said the odds of success were better than even. Eighty-seven
percent said they considered it improbable or highly improbable that an
integrated SDI system could be tested sufficiently to provide confidence
it would work as intended the first time it had to defend against a
full-scale attack. The survey also found that 60 percent said the annual
SDI budget should be $1.5 billion or less, while 7 percent thought it
should be greater than the $3.5 billion approved by Congress this year.
Reagan had sought $5.3 billion in the current fiscal year."
*) Augustus 18, 1993, New York Times, 'Lies and Rigged 'Star Wars' Test
Fooled the Kremlin, and Congress': "Four former Reagan administration
officials said officials in the "Star Wars" project deceived Congress
and the Soviet Union. One deception was a rigged test in June 1984, when
an interceptor missile like this one, launched in the Pacific, hit a
target missile launched from California... "We put a beacon with a
certain frequency on the target vehicle. On the missile we had a
receiver."" Other cases of this kind of deception have been reported.
Some were even carried out in the early 1990s, after the Soviet Union
 1995, Alex Constantine, 'Psychic Dictatorship in the U.S.A.',
chapter two: Blue Smoke & Lasers. This chapter has been used in part as
a guide for the above references. In the chapter Constantive goes a bit
more into the evidence that Star Wars was a front for the development of
some of these EM weapons.
 April 1987, Issue 13, Lobster Magazine, Book review of the
Jonathan Institute's 'Terrorism: how the West can win': "This book is
mostly junk, mere propaganda. I had it with me to read on the train when
I visited Colin Wallace. I showed him the list of contributors and
mentioned the Jonathan Institute. "Oh, a Mossad front, you mean", he
said, and put it down. A Mossad front? I don't know. But misinformation
at worst, wilfully partial at best, this sort of crude propaganda can
only do the Israeli state harm in the long run."
*) May 6, 1980, The Gleaner, 'Soviets and terrorism': "The
Jonathan Institute of Jerusalem, Israel, has published a pamphlet on
"International Terrorism: The Soviet Connection". The pamphlet consists
of a number of presentations made at the Jerusalem Conference on
International Terrorism held July 2-5 last year... The first
contributor, professor Richard Pipes of Harvard, ... stated "The Soviet
Union has enjoyed great success with terror and profited from it in many
ways... We must expose its support of terrorism as widely as possible,
and make the public aware of Soviet complicity... Brian Crozier,
Director of the Institute for the Study of Conflict in London [and still
chairman of Le Cercle], discussed the direct support that the Soviet
Union has given to terrorist movements... Mr Crozier declared that the
Soviets have provided training for terrorists within the USSR. He goes
on to note the use of proxies by the Soviets Libya for example benefited
from one of the biggest arms deals in history, an estimated $12 billion
worth of arms were sold here by the Soviets in 1976... The other
contributors, Ray S. Cline,... Robert Moss [le Cercle],... Jack Kemp,
Major General George J. Keegan, and Senator Henry Jackson also look
closely at Soviet involvement in terrorism."
*) June 23, 1984, Washington Post, 'His brother's keeper': "This weekend
at the Four Seasons Hotel, the Jonathan Institute, which is named after
Netanyahu's slain brother, will begin its second conference on
International Terrorism. Netanyahu helped organize the private,
Israeli-based institute whose public board includes people like Shimon
Peres and Menachem Begin. George Bush and the late Sen. Henry Jackson
spoke at the institute's first conference on terrorism in 1979, on the
third anniversary of Jonathan Netanyahu's death."
*) 1991, Webster Griffin Tarpley & Anton Chaitkin, 'George Bush - The
unauthorized biography': "Then there was the GOP delegation, which was
led by George Bush. Here were Bush activist Ray Cline, Major General
George Keegan, a stalwart supporter of Team B, and Professor Richard
Pipes of Harvard, the leader of Team B. Here were Senator John Danforth
of Missouri and Brian Crozier, a "terrorism expert." Pseudo-intellectual
columnist George Will ("Will the Shill") was also on hand, as was
Rome-based journalist Claire Sterling... International participation was
also notable: Annie Kriegel and Jacques Soustelle of France, Lord Alun
Chalfont, Paul Johnson, and Robert Moss of the United Kingdom, and many
leading Israelis. The keynote statement was made by Prime Minister
*) August 21, 1986, The Times, 'Review of 'Terrorism - How the West can
win': "[The Jonathan Institute's] first conference in 1979 gathered 50
 February 24, 2006 issue, Executive Intelligence Review (EIR), '
Netanyahu's Fascist Record: All Roads Lead to Shultz': "As the story
goes, Netanyahu left Shultz's office and set up a meeting with his
friend Doug Feith to discuss how to organize the conference. (Feith
would be one of the authors of the "Clean Break" document that was
written for Netanyahu more than a decade later, when he would become
Prime Minister of Israel.) The Washington conference, held on June
24-27, 1984, was a mega-event. Some 36 experts on terrorism spoke during
the four-day conference, including the self-described universal fascist
Michael Ledeen, and many others from the U.S. neo-con stable who would
later play an essential role in spreading the intelligence lies that
were used for the invasion of Iraq."
 June 25, 1984, Boston Globe, 'Shultz says West must move to
counter world terrorism': "Secretary of State George P. Shultz said last
night that pre- emptive actions by Western democracies may be necessary
to counter the Soviet Union and other nations that he claimed have
banded together in an international "league of terror.""
 June 26, 1984, Philadelphia Daily News, 'Seeing Red - U.N. aide
links Kremlin to terror': "Weinberger was asked about a proposal by
former Israeli Prime Minister Yitzhak Rabin to create a new
international organization to fight terrorists. "We've got a U.N.
organization that might well be called upon to deal with matters of this
kind," Weinberger replied."
 April 15, 2005 issue, Dean Andromidas for Executive Intelligence
Review, 'How Wolfowitz and the Neo-Cons Sabotaged First 'Oasis Plan'':
"Along with George Shultz, Soustelle became a board member of
Netanyahu's Jonathan Institute for the Study of Terrorism." (According
to Tarpley and Chaitkin, Soustelle had attended the first Jonathan
 June 23, 1984, Washington Post, 'His brother's keeper': "Netanyahu
helped organize the private, Israeli-based [Jonathan] institute whose
public board includes people like Shimon Peres and Menachem Begin."
 April 1987, Issue 13, Lobster Magazine, Book review of 'Terrorism:
how the West can win': "This is a collection of papers read at the 1984
Jonathan Institute conference on terrorism held in Israel, and because
these were originally papers there is no documentation: what we have is
230 pages of assertions. The contributors range from current "experts"
on terrorism - Paul Johnson, Michael Ledeen, Claire Sterling, Lord
Chalfont, Arnaud de Borchgrave - to a group of US government officials
including Kirkpatrick, Schultz, Meese and Webster of the FBI."
 February 1984, Issue 3, Lobster Magazine, 'American Friends: the
Anti-CND Groups': "In 1981 FARI published an absurd booklet by their
chairman Sir Frederick Bennett MP claiming Russian money was being used
September 1986, Issue 12, Lobster Magazine, 'The British Right -
scratching the surface - Digression 2': "When Gable wrote his memo FARI
was being funded by the South African government (although it is
possible that Gable was unaware of this), and its Council included four
men who have appeared in Searchlight: Julian Amery (connection with the
Italian fascist party, MSI, in March 1979), Lord Chalfont (connections
with Chile, August 1979), and Robert Moss and Brian Crozier (all over
issue 18, 1975)."
 March 20, 2004, Daily Telegraph, Obituary of Geoffrey
Stewart-Smith: "In 1974 he had sought to distance his Foreign Affairs
Circle from the World Anti-Communist League because of the WACL's strong
anti-Semitic element, saying: "We wouldn't touch them with a barge
pole." However, he later admitted that another of his organisations, the
Foreign Affairs Research Institute, had been mainly funded by the
apartheid government in South Africa. The admission came in 1987 when
Stewart-Smith appeared at the London Bankruptcy Court, disclosing debts
of pounds 150,388 and no assets."
 April 1986, Issue 11, Lobster Magazine, 'Wilson, MI5 and the Rise
of Thatcher - Covert Operations in British Politics 1974-1978 - Appendix
3': "FARI was also reported to be receiving money from the US company
Lockheed (Counterspy November 1981)"
 Ibid.: "FARI was said to have "strong CIA links" by Gerry Gable in
a memo leaked to the New Statesman."
*) Ibid.: "Nevertheless FARI has grown and grown. In 1980 it began
organising an annual 'balance of power' conference in Britain,
attracting some of the top level figures on the new right: Feulner of
the Heritage Foundation, Ray Cline of NSIC, Frank Barnet of NSIC and the
Committee for the Present Danger, General Daniel Graham ex-'Team B', DIA
*) http://www.ajweberman.com/monica.htm: "In June 1978, FARI
co-sponsored a conference in Brighton, England with the CIA-connected
Institute for the Study of Conflict. Among those who attended was
Richard Mellon Scaife. Also attending the conference was William Casey,
who would later be appointed head of the CIA by Ronald Reagan." The
information on this page seems to be very good.
 December 27, 1991, Milwaukee Journal, Obituary of Richard
Stilwell: "From 1949 to 1952, served as chief of Far East Division of
the CIA and later took command of a regiment in Korea."
 Ibid.: "At his death, [Stilwell] was president of Stilwell
Associates, a consulting firm in Arlington, Va., with the Defense
Department and the CIA among his clients."
 September 16, 1987, Philadelphia Inquirer, 'U.S. backing for
Philippine junta alleged': "Last month, another American visitor to the
islands raised further suspicions of U.S. covert involvement. That
visitor was Richard G. Stilwell... Stilwell visited the Philippines for
10 days in August, leaving the country shortly before the Honasan
 Ibid.: "Singlaub came to the Philippines in November and early
this year on visits that he described as purely private, a search for
sunken treasure. But when the visits were disclosed in the Philippines,
Singlaub immediately left Manila amid reports that his real purpose may
have been linked to covert operations." Large excepts in Stilwell's
 December 7, 1986, Washington Post, '2 Americans advised Enrile
against attempting coup': "A former CIA official and a retired general
traveled to the Philippines last month and counseled then-defense
minister Juan Ponce Enrile against leading a coup attempt against
President Corazon Aquino. Former Central Intelligence Agency deputy
director Ray Cline, now a research professor at Georgetown University
and head of the U.S. Global Strategy Council, confirmed yesterday that
he and retired general Robert Schweitzer made the trip. But Cline denied
a report by U.S. News & World Report magazine that he made the trip
"secretly" with the "knowledge and encouragement" of the White House.
Cline said that he and Schweitzer met with Enrile and other officials,
but he said he was not an official U.S. representative and did not
discuss the trip with the White House. Enrile served as deposed
President Ferdinand Marcos' defense minister and was kept in the post by
Aquino after he helped lead the coup that overthrew Marcos last
February. She forced Enrile to resign last month after persistent
speculation on a coup attempt."
 Detroit Free Press (MI) December 8, 1986, 'Shake-up occurred after
military memo faulted Aquino': "President Corazon Aquino's
reorganization of the government last month took place after military
leaders gave her an 11-page memorandum that criticized "inactivity
and/or inadequacies" of her administration and demanded military and
civil reforms. The top-secret document, a copy of which was made
available to Knight-Ridder Newspapers, was described by one senior
military official who requested anonymity as a way to "gently coerce"
Aquino. "We are telling her what to do," said another military figure
who also requested anonymity, "and there is an implied threat all
through it about what will happen if she doesn't." The document was
signed by Gen. Fidel Ramos, the armed forces chief of staff, and all six
service commanders, and endorsed by then-Defense Minister Juan Ponce
Enrile, dismissed from the cabinet after he was linked to a coup plot
last month... "Ramos wrote about 60 or 70 percent of that document,"
said one military official who participated in several of the top- level
meetings that led to the creation of the memorandum. "But he was so
tense by that time that I think he didn't really know which way was up."
The official spoke on condition of anonymity."
 September 16, 1987, Philadelphia Inquirer, 'U.S. backing for
Philippine junta alleged'
 1993, Brian Crozier, 'Free Agent', p. 135-136
*) Mostly documented in 1999, Adam Curtis, 'The Mayfair Set'
(broadcasted on BBC2). This documentary does not discuss the role of
George Kennedy Young, Billy McLean and the Mossad.
*) May 1990, Issue 19, Lobster, 'The final testimony of George Kennedy
Young - Introduction' (written by Young himself): "However Nasser did
get his uppance. Young had already left MI6 for merchant banking when
Mossad approached him to find an Englishman acceptable to the Saudis to
run a guerrilla war against the left-wing Yemeni regime and its Egyptian
backers. 'I can find you a Scotsman', replied Young, and over a lunch in
the City introduced Colonel Neil ('Billy') Maclean to Brigadier Dan
Hiram, the Israeli Defence Attache. The Israelis promised to supply
weapons, funds and instructors who could pass themselves off as Arabs,
and the Saudis eagerly grasped the idea. Maclean's irregulars restored
the Imam's rule and Nasser pulled out his troops whose morale had been
badly shaken by the Yemeni practice of sending back captured troops with
their lips cut cut off in a ghastly grin."
More details in the 1001 Club article on PEHI.
 August 11, 1991, Hartford Courant, 'Americares' success hailed,
criticized charity uses clout and connections...'. Large excerpts can be
found in the
biography of General Stilwell in the PEHI membership list
accompanying this article.
 1997, Robert Hutchinson, Their Kingdom Come, p. 355-359
 1993, Brian Crozier, Free Agent, p.186: "After the first election
victory but before taking office, Reagan had appointed another of his
Californian friends, William A. Wilson, to liaise both with the Pinay
Cercle (see Ch. XV) and with The 61." Wilson was personal representative
of President Reagan to the Vatican 1981-1984 and United States
Ambassador to the Vatican 1984-1986. For details on Wilson's membership
in the Knights of Malta see the membership list.
 Ibid., p. 197: "Von Machtenberg had telephoned both reports to me,
and I immediately passed them on to the appropriate authorities. They
were relayed to 10 Downing Street, the White House, and the Elysée.
Albertini, who had alerted the latter, also, with my encouragement,
passed the intelligence on to the Vatican (always a factor in any crisis
affecting Catholic Poland, birthplace of Pope John Paul II)."
 August 11, 1991, Hartford Courant, 'Americares' success hailed,
criticized charity uses clout and connections...': "The alliance between
Macauley and Ritter led to an audience with Pope John Paul II in Rome in
1982. (Ritter left Covenant House in February 1990 after accusations of
sexual misconduct with some male runaways he was helping). The meeting
with the pope gave life to AmeriCares. Although Macauley started
AmeriCares in 1979, the organization did not go on its first relief
mission until 1982, when the pope asked Macauley to send aid to his
native Poland." More information in Stilwell's biography.
 1997, Robert Hutchinson, 'Their Kingdom Come – Inside the Secret
World of Opus Dei', p. 263-264: "P2 was formed in the late 1960s,
allegedly at the behest of Giordano Gamberini, a Grand Master of the
Grand Orient of Italy and friend of Gulio Andreotti. But he was much
closer to Francesco Cosentino, who also was well introduced in Vatican
circles. Either Andreotti or Cosentino, or perhaps both, were said to
have suggested the creation of a small cell of trusted right-wing
personalities in key national sectors, but especially banking,
intelligence and the press, to guard against what they perceived as 'the
creeping communist threat'. The person Gamberini chose to develop the P2
Lodge was a small-time textile magnate from the Tuscan town of Arezzo,
midway between Florence and Perugia, who after two as a Freemason had
risen to the Italian equivalent of Master Mason. His name, of course,
was Licio Gelli. But the P2's top man, according to Calvi, was none
other than Andreotti, followed in line of command by Cosentino and
Ortolani[Umberto Ortolani; secret chamberlain of the Papal Household;
member of the inner council of the Knights of Malta; said to be a member
of Cardinal Giacomo Lercano; met with Licio Gelli, Roberto Calvi, and
others in Rome in December 1969]. Andreotti always denied Calvi's
allegation. But the fact remains that Calvi feared Andreotti more than
Gelli or Ortolani. As for Cosentino, he died soon after the P2 hearings
 2005, Daniele Ganser, 'Nato's Secret Armies', p. 74: "Frank
Gigliotti [one-time assistant to a hypnotist; Presbyterian clergyman;
worked with teenaged boys, for whom he organized a social club named the
Guiseppe Mazzini Club; recruited by the OSS; active in Italy] of the US
Masonic Lodge personally recruited Gelli and instructed him to set up an
anti-Communist parallel government in Italy in close cooperation with
the CIA station in Rome. 'It was Ted Shackley, director of all covert
operations of the CIA in Italy in the 1970s', an internal report of the
Italian anti-terrorism unit confirmed, 'who presented the chief of the
Masonic Lodge to Alexander Haig'. According to the document, Nixon's
Military adviser General Haig [later Pilgrims Society executive], who
had commanded US troops in vietnam and thereafter from 1974 to 1979
served as NATO's SACEUR, and Nixon's National Security Advisor Henry
Kissinger [Le Cercle] 'authorized Gelli in the fall of 1969 to recruit
400 high ranking Italian and NATO officers into his lodge'. (60)... the
secretive anti-Communist P2 members list confiscated [in 1981] counted
at least 962 members, with total leadership estimated at 2,500... 52
were high-ranking officers of the Carabinieri paramilitary police, 50
were high-ranking officers of the Italian Army, 37 were high-ranking
officers of the Finance Police, 29 were high-ranking officers of the
Italian Navy, 11 were Presidents of the police, 70 were influential and
wealthy industrialists, 10 were Presidents of banks, 3 were acting
Ministers, 2 were former Ministers, 1 was President of a political
party, 38 were members of parliament and 14 were high-ranking judges.
Others on lower levels of the social hierarchy were mayors, Directors of
hospitals, lawyers, notaries and journalists."
 http://www.constantinian.org.uk/. You can't link directly to the
relevant pages of this site. The names mentioned in this article can be
found in the history of the organization and are spread throughout
reports of the order's activities.
 1990, Hugo Gijssels, De Bende & Co., p. 174 (translated from Dutch
to English): "Finally, Paul Vankerkhoven is also co-founder and vice
chairman of 'l'Institut Européen de Développement', of which the seat is
located in the castle of baron de Bonvoisin."
 A combination of two sources describing the same police documents.
*) 1999, Annemie Bulté, Douglas De Coninck, & Marie-Jeanne Van Heeswyck,
'The X-Dossiers - What Belgium was not supposed to know about the
Dutroux case', p. 345-346 (only available in Dutch and French and
generally hard to get at the moment). This book does not give specific
names (anywhere in the book) and does not mention Opus Dei.
*) The French summary of the Dutroux X-Files made by investigative
reporter Jean Nicolas who at some point gained access to the Dutroux and
King Albert dossiers, consisting of more than 20.000 pages and many tape
recordings of witnesses. Specific file numbers: pv. 250 (Z156) of
January 8, 1997 and pv. 466 (Z156) of January 16, 1997. These file
numbers match those given by the investigative reporters of the book
'The X-Dossiers' who worked for mainstream newspapers as De Morgen. The
French summary also gives a few more details, including Thoma's
statement that he was told this was part of an Opus Dei initiation. The
hints about one or two of the perpetrators given in the book 'The
X-Dossiers' match those named the French document.
 2001, Jean Nicolas and Frédéric Lavachery, 'Dossier Pédophilie -
Le scandale de l'affaire Dutroux', p. 193. The authors have included an
uncensored transcript of a meeting between Christine Doret, Jean-Claude
Garot and André Pinon that was taped without the knowledge of
participant/witness Doret. Other authors have reported on this tape, but
censored the names. The descriptions of the persons involved match with
the names given in other publications. 1990, Hugo Gijssels, De Bende &
Co., p. 135 adds about Boeynants "In a May 1988 interview with Vrij
Nederland [Free Holland] Congressman [now Senator] Hugo Coveliers [of
Belgium] declares without any sign of doubt that Vanden Boeynants is
mentioned in the Pinon dossier as one of the participants in the
sex-parties. Vanden Boeynants, who has a habit of bombarding the press
with demands for explanations and legal threats, lets these serious
accusations blow over without response. He does not react in any way."
 1990, Hugo Gijssels, De Bende & Co., p. 129-130
"DELEGATION DE L'ORDRE AUPRES DU GOUVERNEMENT: BELGIQUE Domaine du Fuji,
21 - B 1970 Wezembeek - Oppem Tél: +322.731.30.60 - Fax: +322.782.16.00
*) Jonet was recently raised to peerage.
"Représentations diplomatiques de l'Ordre et autres organisations :
Belgique Représentant (1 janvier 2002) Le Baron Jonet Domaine de Fuji,
21 - B-1970 Wezembeek-Oppem Tél.: +32.2.731.30.60 Fax: +32.2.782.16.00
E-mail : email@example.com"
*) Jonet's wife: http://www.ordredemaltebelgium.org/belg_org_admin.html:
"CONSEIL D'ADMINISTRATION DE L'ASSOCIATION BELGE DE L'ORDRE DE MALTE
Administrateurs membres du Comité de Direction
Le Prince Baudoin de Merode, Président
Le Baron de Barsy, Coadjuteur
Le Baron Arnoud Papeians de Morchoven, Chancelier
La Baronne Jonet, Hospitalier
Le Comte Jean-Pierre de Beauffort, Trésorier.
Le Comte de Borchgrave d'Altena Merghelynck... "
 1990, Hugo Gijssels, De Bende & Co., p. 129-130
 Some examples of Opus Dei's influence on the Franco dictatorship
from the 1957 to the 1970:
*) February 9, 1960, The Times, 'Spanish Newspaper Ownership -
Acquisitions by Opus Dei': "The acquisition of substantial holdings in
Madrid and provincial newspapers is among the recent moves of Opus Dei,
a Roman Catholic secular society which is becoming a force to watch in
Spanish political life... Since General Franco's Cabinet reshuffle in
February 1957, members of Opus Dei have penetrated into a number of key
positions in the government and seats of learning."
*) July 30, 1969, Star News, 'Spanish Catholic Lay Group May Hold Key to
Future': "Now that 76-year-old chief of state Francisco Franco has named
Prince Juan Carlos to succeed him, one of the most stabilizing forces in
the transition to a post-Franco era will be a little-known and less
understood organization called Opus Dei... Though the extent of their
influence is not fully known, informed sources estimate that three or
four major banking chains, vast real estate holdings and several key
industries are in their hands. In addition, Opus Dei people are said to
control two Madrid daily newspapers, a considerable share of the
provincial press, a national press agency and a broadcasting station.
Opus Dei's University of Navarro the only private university in Spain,
turns out some of the country's most skilled journalists... Much of .the
credit for Spain's rapid economic advance during the last decade goes to
Opus Dei members. At present, five or six of Franco's cabinet members
are generally regarded as being in the Opus Dei camp, thereby
constituting the largest minority in the cabinet. The number of
lower-ranking government officials with strong Opus Dei leanings is
believed to run into the hundreds."
*) August 26, 1969, The Times, ''Resign' call in Spain': "All the key
economic ministries [in Spain] are controlled by Opus Dei members, or
*) October 30, 1969, The Times, 'Riot as Franco alters Cabinet': "The
Spanish government officially announced the names of General Franco's
new Cabinet tonight, and confirmed earlier speculation that members of
the powerful Roman Catholic lay organization Opus Dei will dominate
Spain's future... Only four of the 18 Cabinet posts are unaffected...
One of the most significant changes in the appointment of Senor Gregorio
Lopez Bravo [Opus Dei], the former Minister of Industry, to be Minister
of Foreign Affairs... Senor Lopez Bravo is widely credited in the
Spanish capital with being pro-British, pro-European and pro-American.
He will therefore carry the hopes of many Spaniards for a solution to
problems such as the Gibraltar dispute, entry into the European Common
Market and the question of continued American use of military bases in
Spain. Senor Lopez Bravo has visited Britain twice in recent months and
is and is well regarded there in British business circles... There is no
doubt in Madrid that most of the new non-military ministers are members
of Opus Dei... At the very least it is a victory of the 48-year-old
[pro-Europe] Senor Loreano Lopez Rodo, a member of Opus Dei and hitherto
Minister without Portfolio, who not only retains his authority to
supervise various ministries, but is also reported to have gained the
post Secretary to the Presidency, equivalent in authority to that of
Vice-President." Alfredo Sanchez Bello, brother of the head of Opus Dei
in Spain, became Minister of Information and Tourism. Federico Silva
Munoz was one of the four ministers who remained in office.
*) April 15, 1970, Winnipeg Free Press, 'Franco Tips Power To Opus Dei':
"When Franco named his new government last October he broke precedent by
giving the bulk of the power to a single group, the Roman Catholic lay
organization Opus Dei. Public information officials of Opus Dei
acknowledge that at least three members of their movement hold key spots
in the cabinet... Other sources say at least 10 of the 19 cabinet
ministers have close ties to Opus Dei... Opus Dei, for example, was
influential in Franco's decision to name Prince Juan Carlos as his
successor [through Otto von Habsburg]. But even while it was working for
his selection, Opus Dei took the precaution of planting its men in the
entourages of the other two pretenders to the throne; Juan Carlos'
father, Don Juan, the Count of Barcelona; and Prince Hugo de Bourbon
Parma. Prince Juan Carlos has had an Opus Dei priest as his confessor
and by official account has studied under Opus Dei professors. Most of
his advisers are reported to be Opus men."
*) October 30, 1970, The Times, 'After Franco - the question that is
still unanswerable; Hugh Thomas writes that Opus Dei, the 'New Templars',
control Spain': "The arrival in power of the first members of Opus Dei
was soon followed by Spain's application for association with the Common
Market... But the last government reshuffle, in October 1969, coincided
with a new hardening of the regime in many respects - for example, press
 German Wikipedia article on Otto von Habsburg
 February 24, 1967, Time Magazine, 'Struggle for Freedom': "The
most talked-about subject in Spain last week was something that did not
happen: the failure of the Cabinet to pass a bill that would at last
grant a measure of religious freedom to Spain's tiny non-Catholic
minority... For years, Spain's non-Catholics have almost been
non-people, barred from participating in the mainstream of Spanish life.
They were, in fact, not even officially recognized as having been born,
married or buried—since Spain acknowledged those milestones only when
they were sanctioned by the Catholic clergy... Castiella, who has
championed the bill for ten years, nevertheless pressed on with his
familiar argument: granting religious freedom was not only the right
thing to do morally but also the right thing for Spain if it wants to
become a respected member of the world community. Several of the
ministers who are identified with the Opus Dei laymen's organization
supported him. But the opposition quickly closed ranks. Interior
Minister Camilo Alonso Vega, 77, who as Spain's top cop maintains that
the Spanish are "the most unruly people in Europe", argued that
religious freedom would only stir up trouble, just as the earlier
measures granting workers and students more freedom resulted in the
present rash of strikes and student riots. On a more philosophical
level, Public Works Minister Federico Silva Munoz, 43, contended that
granting religious liberty to minority sects would shatter Spain's
spiritual unity. The ministers connected with the military supported the
views of Vega and Munoz..."
 October 30, 1969, The Times, 'Riot as Franco Alters Cabinet': "The
Spanish Government officially announced the names of General Franco's
new Cabinet tonight, and confirmed earlier speculation that members of
the powerful Roman Catholic lay organization Opus Dei will dominate
Spain's future... Only four of the 18 Cabinet posts are unaffected...
The new Cabinet is as follows... Public Works. - Federico Silva Munoz
 April 11, 1970, The Times, 'Resignation of Spanish Minister': "One
of General Franco's "technocrat" ministers resigned today, possibly as
the result of a deep ideological split in the government, reliable
sources said. Senor Federico Silva Munoz, aged 46, Minister of Public
Works since June, 1965, was said to have given his resignation to the
General this morning... The present Under-Secretary for Foreign Affairs,
Senor Gonzalo Fernandez de la Mora, was said to have been chosen as the
new Minister of Public Works. Like most of the present Cabinet, and
unlike his predecessor, he is known to be a sympathizer with, if not a
member of, the powerful Roman Catholic lay organization Opus Dei...
[Munoz] is also thought, as a technocrat without any strong political
orientation, to have been opposed to the reactionary political attitude
of of Vice-President Carrerro Blanco and some other ministries."
Interesting, Munoz was among the most reactionary politicians of the
 October 11, 1976, The Times, 'Suarez regime challenged from the
right as new party is launched by Franco era politicians': ";Senor Silva
Munoz, now head of Campsa, the oil concern;"
 July 4, 1976, The Modesto Bee, 'King Juan Carlos names new premier
of Spain': "A third name submitted to the monarch by the Council of the
Realm, his top advisory body, was that of Federico Silva Munoz, 52, a
Christian Democrat and former public works minister."
 Winter 1986, Issue 25, Covert Action Information, 'Knights of
Darkness - The Sovereign Military Order of Malta': "Recognition of the
importance of Opus Dei at the highest levels of SMOM had already been
established in the summer of 1976 when King Juan-Carlos, himself a
Knight of Malta, chose Adolfo Suarez, a member of Opus Dei, as new chief
of government following the death of Franco. (Point de Vue, January 14,
 October 11, 1976, The Times, 'Suarez regime challenged from the
right as new party is launched by Franco era politicians'. Munoz,
Fernandez de la Mora, Fraga, and Rodo are mentioned as founders of
Allianza Popular, together with two other anonymous ex-Franco ministers.
 January 10, 1979, El Pais, 'Silva Muñoz unites with the ultraright
to be presented at the elections' (translated from Spanish):"Federico
Silva, Gonzalo Fernández de la Mora, Raimundo Fernández Cuesta, Blas
Piñar, José Antonio Girón and other political leaders have formed a
coalition named Union of the Right [that] involves all political forces
to the right of the coalition Fraga-Areilza-Osorio, in other words, the
Derecha Democrática Española and the gathering of national forces [a
reference to Pinar's New Force, which had the aim of "gathering the
national forces"]." This is a rough translation (as my Spanish is very
rusty) from "... Girón y otros dirigentes políticos han formado una
coalición unitaria que se llamará Unión de Derechas y que agrupa a todas
las fuerzas políticas situadas a la derecha de la coalición
Fraga-Areilza-Osorio, es decir, la Derecha Democrática Española y las
llamadas fuerzas nacionales."
 December 1, 1979, El Pais, 'The Constitution is a permanent factor
of distortion, according to Federico Silva' (translated from Spanish):
"The Constitution that was passed and that we accepted, even though we
don't agree with most aspects of it, will continue be a permanent factor
of distortion on the national life and of the life of the
right[-wingers] in particular, says Federico Silva Munoz, promoter of
Derecha Democrática Española, in a declaration to the European Press
Agency. Their [political] group will celebrate their first national
congress on the 8th and 9th of this month."
 September-October 1997, Issue 85, Razón Española (translated from
Spanish): "I met Federico in the 1940s at a conference of the National
Catholic Association of Propagandist to which he belonged, and from then
on we were united in great friendship." http://www.galeon.com/razonespanola/re85-sil.htm
 Ibid (translated from Spanish): "The Balmes Foundation was founded
in 1983, supported by grants made by the German Hans Seidel Foundation.
Its [Balmes Foundation] main purpose was to establish the magazine Razon
Espanola on October 1, 1983. Without that initial German impulse,
maintained in a decreasing way, our publication, which didn't have even
minimal support of the Spanish Administration, would have been
impossible. The name of Federico Silva is indissolubly linked to this
magazine, in which he collaborated as an objective and neutral columnist
over several years."
 Can't get access any time soon to the sources the articles below
refer to, so these will have to do for now:
*) November 1987, Issue 14, Lobster Magazine, 'US involvement in the
Fiji coup d'etat': "Another foreign influence in Fijian politics has
been the Hans Seidel Foundation, the foreign arm of Franz-Josef Strauss'
Christian Social Union, which has an impressive building in Suva. HSF
functions as a West German version of NED/PDU, works closely with the
Heritage Foundation, and in Fiji has been involved in aid projects,
television programming, and assistance to the Alliance Party. The
foundation is regarded with considerable suspicion in Fiji. It is
credited with spending millions of dollars on a Fijian grassroots
cultural revival which has been thin cover for fostering the Taukei
*) 1989, Issue 18, Lobster Magazine, '': ". "The Hanns-Seidel-Stiftung,
the political trust attached to Strauss' Christian Social Union party,
is an important group in international parapolitical manipulation.
Active in Latin America for the Contras,(3) supporting Mobuto in Zaire,
involved in the Fiji coup in 1987, it was caught diverting state
development aid from Germany into right-wing party coffers in Ecuador in
the same year."
*) January 1991, International Affairs (RIIA magazine), 'Foreign
Political Aid: The German Political Foundations and Their US
Counterparts': "The Seidel Foundation supported the personal links
established between the CSU leader, Franz Josef Strauss, and such
African politicians as President Mobutu of Zaire and President Eyadema
*) 1995, Catholics for a Free Choice, 'Opus Dei: The Pope's Right Arm in
Europe': "The Hanns-Seidel Foundation, based in Germany, is accredited
with and receives funding from the European Union. The foundation is
linked with the CSU (the Bavarian Christian Democrat) party of the late
Fritz Pirkl, who was in the European Parliament and served on the boards
of directors of Hanns-Seidel and the Rhine-Danube Foundation. Together
with Limmat, Hanns-Seidel has funded Opus Dei’s extensive operations in
the Philippines, including the Centre for Research and Communication.
The centre’s "self-declared task is to form the future economic and
political elite of the country," writes Opus Dei critic Peter Hertel.
"Under President Corazon Aquino, Opus members have put a decisive stamp
on the country’s Constitution.""
 May 30, 1980, The Times, 'A Strauss Profile', reply from Brian
 November 2, 1982, Brian Crozier in The Times, 'Is democracy such a
good thing?': "We all have our intellectual assumptions, and the
prevailing assumption in the West is that party democracy is necessarily
good and dictatorship necessarily bad... The cause of relief was that
the fragile flower of Spanish democracy was being saved - the important
thing being the salvation of party democracy, not whether party
democracy is necessarily good for Spain or will necessarily solve
Spain's problems, which is at least open to doubt if hard facts mean
anything. Since Franco died in 1975, inflation and unemployment have
soared in Spain. So have terrorism and non-political crime. Moreover,
the politicians have saddled their country with an unworkable
 November 1988, Issue 17, David Teacher for Lobster Magazine, 'The
Pinay Circle and Destabilisation in Europe'
 February 5-6, 2004, European Navigator/Jean Monnet Foundation for
Europe, Otto von Habsburg in an interview with European Navigator
replies to the question what he thinks were the key players in European
integration (translated from French): "Charles de Gaulle in the first
place. Certainly one of the big visionaries of Europe... There are a lot
of difficulties with the French, but we cannot make it without them.
They are an essential element to us and without De Gaulle... France
would have collapsed completely."
 Paneuropa Jugend Bayern, 80 Jahre Paneuropa (translated from
"At the 1973 general meeting in Straßburg [Austria], Otto von Habsburg
was finally elected as international president [of the Paneuropa Union]
at the suggestion of French president and excited Paneuropean Georges
Pompidou after he [Otto] had occupied the office temporarily for a
*) August 1984, Issue 5, Jonathan Marshall for Lobster Magazine,
'Brief Notes On The Political Importance Of Secret Societies': "[Opus
Dei] was said to have influenced Robert Schumann, Antoine Pinay and Paul
Baudoin, former President of the Banque de L'Indochine and Vichy Foreign
Minister. Above all, however, Opus Dei made inroads through Baudoin's
protege Edmond Giscard, who shared a variety of colonial enterprises
with the BIC group. Edmond, father of Valery, was President of the
Banque des Interets Francais (BIF), of which minority control rested
with Opus Dei's Banco Popular Espanol. Another Opus Dei connection was
forged through the treasurer of Valery Giscard d'Estaing's Independent
Republican Party, the Prince Jean de Broglie. De Broglie was President
of a Luxembourg firm, Sodetex S.A., an affiliate of the Spanish textile
firm Matesa, which was at the centre of an enormous Opus Dei-linked
financial scandal that rocked the Spanish government in the late 1960s.
There is evidence that the Opus Dei-Matesa network siphoned off money
for the campaign of Giscard..."
*) Additional: 1994, R.T. Naylor (Professor of Economics at McGill
University), Hot Money and the Politics of Debt, p. 267: "Pinay was
installed by Bobby Leclerc in 1969 as president of the Compagnie de
Guarantie des Investissements Industriels et Financiers in Geneva, which
used Pinay's name to attract French funds. Leclerc also had good
relations with... Valéry Giscard d'Estaing. Not least important of
Leclerc's activities was his role, with Prince Jean de Broglie,
cofounder of Giscard's Independent Republican party, in the
administration of Sodatex, the Luxembourg-based holding company through
which the principals of the notorious MATESA were looting Spanish
government subsidy money in the 1960s... After the MATESA scandal
broke,... came charges that Sodatex was the center of a huge arms- and
drug-dealing operation across the French-Luxembourg border. All this
assured that, when de Broglie was gunned down in a Paris street in 1976,
the subsequent exposure of links to Sodatex set off a run on Bobby
Leclerc's bank." Original source of Naylor is: 1982, Jesus Ynfante, 'Une
Crime sous Giscard'.
 December 14, 1981, Time Magazine, 'The Rothschilds are roving': "Banque
Rothschild is being nationalized by the socialist government of French
President François Mitterrand, along with the country's other major
banks and holding companies... Unaffected by the nationalization are the
nonbank personal holdings of Baron Guy and Cousins Baron Alain and Baron
Elie, including New Court Securities, a U.S. investment firm based in
New York City, which will now receive more of the family's attention and
money. And beginning Jan. 1, 1982, New Court will change its name to a
more golden sounding sobriquet: Rothschild Inc. Founded with $2 million
in 1967, New Court today manages a portfolio worth more than $1 billion,
including funds from such corporate clients as General Foods, TRW and
Hughes Aircraft... That bullishness on America's prospects is shared by
Co-Chairman Guy, who has been commuting monthly since last June between
Paris and New Court's offices in New York City's Rockefeller Center. Guy
will not move permanently to the U.S., and Cousin Elie's son Nathaniel,
34, a graduate of the Harvard Business School, is a prime candidate to
direct U.S. operations eventually. Says Guy: "My great-grandfather sent
one of his sons, my grandfather Alphonse, to America in 1848. After
returning to France, Alphonse pleaded with his father that the U.S. was
the coming country and that there should be a House of Rothschild there.
It's an enormous pity that my grandfather's advice was not heeded. As
far as I'm concerned, we should have had a Rothschild bank in the U.S.
since the middle of the 19th century. Our involvement in America now is
really 100 years late in arriving.""
 1993, Brian Crozier, 'Free Agent', p. 217-218: "At the Cercle
meeting in Washington in December 1980, Georges Albertini had brought
along a quiet Frenchman named Francois de Grossouvre. This was an
impressive example of his foresight. De Grossouvre, a physician, was the
closest friend and confidant of the Socialist leader and presidential
candidate Francois Mitterrand. For many years, Grossouvre had carried
out special missions for Mitterrand. By nature and training, he was
self-effacing. He played no part in our debates, but listened carefully,
taking notes. Five months later, Francois Mitterrand narrowly defeated
Valéry Giscard d'Estaing in France's presidential elections. One of his
first actions was to appoint de Grossouvre as his coordinator of
security and intelligence. Shortly after, having obtained his direct
line from Albertini, I went to see him in his modest office in the
 2005, Daniele Ganser, 'NATO's Secret Armies', p. 101: "[The
SDECE's] name changed to Direction Generale de la Securite Exterieure (DGSE)
and Admiral Pierre Lacoste became its new Director. Lacoste continued to
run the secret Gladio army of the DGSE in close cooperation with
NATO..." Ganser, p. 90: "Maybe the most famous member of the French
secret anti-Communist Rose des Vents [French Stay Behind/Gladio] army
was Francois Grossouvre who in 1981 became the adviser of Socialist
President Francois Mitterand for secret operations."
 October 6, 1985, New York Times, 'Greenpeace ship reaches test
site': "The Greenpeace flagship has arrived off the coast of the French
nuclear test site in the South Pacific, where it joined another protest
ship from the organization... The Greenpeace replaced the Rainbow
Warrior, which was blown up on July 10 by French agents in New Zealand's
Auckland harbor... Meanwhile, the largest opposition newspaper in Paris,
Le Figaro, reported Friday that Mr. Mitterrand must have known of plans
to sink the Rainbow Warrior, which was preparing to lead the Mururoa
protest. Mr. Mitterrand's Socialist Government acknowledged secret
service responsibility for the sinking last month. Defense Minister
Charles Hernu and Adm. Pierre Lacoste, the head of the secret service,
resigned because of the scandal. Le Figaro, without citing its sources,
said the decision to mine the Rainbow Warrior was made in June in a
meeting at the Elysee Palace attended by Mr. Hernu, Admiral Lacoste and
the presidential adviser, Francois de Grossouvre. It was ''not
believable'' that Mr. de Grossouvre failed to inform Mr. Mitterrand of
the sabotage plans, Le Figaro contended."
 July 14, 2004, Bloomberg News, 'France's Chirac Pledges Referendum
on EU Constitution': "At the EU leaders summit in June when the
constitution was agreed, Chirac said he views the U.K. referendum as a
final test of whether Britain's allegiances are to Europe, the U.S. or
its former empire. He also floated the idea in April of forcing any
country that rejects the constitution to leave the EU." http://quote.bloomberg.com/apps/news?pid=10000087&sid=
 April 15, 2005, BBC, 'Chirac makes case for EU treaty': "President
Jacques Chirac has taken part in a live TV debate in France to try to
persuade its people to vote in favour of the proposed EU constitution...
Mr Chirac warned a No vote against the new constitution - designed to
streamline institutions to make decision-making easier in an enlarged
union of 25 countries - would be a disaster for Europe... It would halt
the European project in its tracks, and pave the way to an unregulated,
uncontrolled free-market world, dominated by the United States. He said
it would be in the interest of Anglo-Saxon countries or the US to stop
"European construction" and that France would be weakened if it voted
 June 16, 2005, BBC, 'EU: What kind of club?': "It is startling for
example that Valery Giscard d'Estaing, the grandee who chaired the
convention that wrote the constitution, now says it was mistake to send
a copy of the 448-page document to every French home. He told the New
York Times that he had begged President Chirac not to do this. "It is
not possible for anyone to understand the full text," he pronounced."
 February 28, 2006, speech at the London School of Economics
entitled 'The Political Future of Europe' http://www.lse.ac.uk/collections/LSEPublicLecturesAndEvents/
 2005, Ausgabe 2-3, Eurojournal pro management, p. 14, committee
member Otto von Habsburg: "The original wording of the Constitution
draft by Giscard d'Estaing was quite short and comprehensible. So why
did it fail to convince the voters? This is plain: a campaign launched
with the help of a book thick with legal terminology which, the
bureaucrats hoped, voters would read and comprehend. Much money was
spent, but nothing was gained. A Commission full of aged politicians to
work on the draft which spoilt it just as "too many cooks spoil the
broth". Giscard d'Estaing knew what would happen with his initial draft,
and later photographs show the expression of a man in desperation who
knew that should this revamped version fail, then he would be
responsible anyway... No attempt was made to reach out to future
generations as did the late pope John Paul II or as Pope Benedict XVI
now does; two old men who somehow managed and manage to enthuse the
masses. It is therefore no wonder that the battle was lost; the idea
however still lives on, but we need new politicians to bring the idea
home to voters."
 The following documents are accessible through the Henry Jackson
*) September 29, 2005, Marko Attila Hoare for the Henry Jackson Society,
'Turkey, the EU and the Armenian Genocide': "Turkey is at a delicate
stage in the transition to democracy, which it is the duty of democratic
Europe to assist. Yet this may require some commensurate reform of
consciousness on the part of Western Europe. Turkey needs the EU to help
it reform its consciousness; but for the same reason, the EU needs
*) June 10, 2005, Hendrik Puschmann for the Henry Jackson Society, 'Five
Reasons Why Europe Needs Anglo-German Leadership': "The defeat of the
Constitutional Treaty in France has caused great damage to French
leadership potential in Europe, which arguably has been at the heart of
the European project from the outset... now that France has effectively
propelled herself out of the driving seat, this will have to change if
the European Union is to be safeguarded against the danger of
disintegration. We believe that the only way to do so is to replace the
Franco-German axis, the quasi-proverbial 'motor' of European integration
that broke down on 29th May, with an Anglo-German one... Germany would
have to abandon her focus on Franco-German cooperation, enshrined as a
de facto doctrine since the foundation of the Federal Republic. Britain
would have to undergo much greater transformation even. She would have
to commit once and for all to a strong Europe, and that means a final
devotion to the pooling of sovereignty... an Anglo-French alliance would
suffer from both countries’ strongly developed international ambitions
and military potential. By comparison, a London-Berlin axis looks like a
natural symbiosis. Britain clearly would be senior partner, much as
France was of old, but the weights would not be quite so crassly off
balance... Post-war Germany has historically been an Atlanticist nation,
standing firmly by the side of the United States and the United Kingdom.
Recent anti-American moves by the Berlin government, most prominently
the denial of even token support for Operation IRAQI FREEDOM (or TELIC)
and the subsequent transformation of Iraq, were primarily motivated by
domestic factors, that is, Chancellor Gerhard Schröder (unlike Tony
Blair) playing to public opinion in order to secure his re-election."
 According to Catherine Griggs in her 6+ hour videotaped interview
of about 1998.
 Sen. John DeCamp, 'The Franklin Cover-Up,' second edition,
p.387-388 (Feb. 2006 edition)
 July 29, 1997, The Times, 'Secret members of the Other Club'. Gave
a list of members as of January 1994. Apparently there are about 90
members in total.
 See reference 27.
 November 20, 2002, Der Standard, 'Das Pentagon ist heute eine
http://derstandard.at/?url=/?id=1136970. The English Wikipedia article
on Otto von Habsburg has taken over the quote.
 September 2, 2005, ePolitics interview with Jonathan Aitken.
 June 12, 1999, The Tablet, 'Jonathan Aitken says Sorry': "Earlier
he had given an assistant editor of The Tablet access to a revealing
text in which he bares his soul. "I am a man of unclean lips." The
speaker is Jonathan Aitken, and he is referring quite explicitly to his
perjury, for which he was sentenced on Tuesday to eighteen months in
prison... The trouble with Jonathan Aitken is that the public will never
take him seriously again. He held a press conference to launch his libel
action against the Guardian and Granada television with these words, "I
will cut out the cancer of bent and twisted journalism with the simple
sword of truth", only to be impaled upon his own sword. The Guardian
were able to uncover evidence to prove that he had lied over the
question of who had paid his hotel bill in Paris. It might seem a small
matter, but on it hung allegations of taking secret commission for
multi-million-pound arms dealings, over which Aitken had lied not only
to the press but also apparently to his own Government. The deceit even
involved the corruption of Aitken's own daughter, 13 at the time of the
hotel incident, whom he had persuaded to sign a false statement saying
she was in Paris. Corruption of the young, and self-enrichment from arms
dealings, are commonly put high on the list of mortal sins. How do you
emerge from a reputation as a mega-liar?... he has been a church-goer
for years. It is a surprise, however, to hear that he has done the Alpha
course, not once but three times, graduating from a humble student to a
helper who pours coffee. Even more astonishing, he has done Ignatian
retreats. His first experience was in the Westminster retreats in daily
life, for MPs and others working at Westminster, and in due course he
went away to the Coach House in Inverness to make an individually
directed eight-day retreat with the Jesuit Gerry W. Hughes... stripped
as a bankrupt of his Rolex watch, still able to draw from an unspecified
source living expenses of 11,400 [pounds] a month."
 June 29, 1997, The Independent, 'Aitken dropped by the Right's
 1993, Alan Clark, 'Diaries', p. 369 (About Clark's 1991 experience
with Le Cercle): "There is a distinguished attendance list, and Jonathan
Aitken, who knows absolutely everybody in the world has, amusingly and
indiscreetly, guided me through it."
 2005, Lamont's comment on the rejected European Constitution for
the Bruges Group. http://www.brugesgroup.com/mediacentre/releases.live?article=8757
 July 2, 1995, Sunday Times, 'Rothschild rues its blues under the
bed': "Last week it started to look as if Rothschild was planning to
make a bid to become the government itself when John Redwood, a former
Rothschild fund manager, launched his campaign to become the Tory party
leader with Norman Lamont, a Rothschild director, at his side. But
Rothschild's position as the hotbed of Tory Euro-sceptic activity is
understandably raising some eyebrows both within the bank and outside...
And whatever the political views of some in the bank, to project a
Europhobic image while trying to win business from all over Europe is a
far-from-brilliant marketing concept. Lamont's appointment, more than
any other of the political refugees to appear on the Rothschild board,
was made despite the opposition of senior Rothschild corporate
financiers. Sir Evelyn, however, is renowned for making these sort of
appointments without reference to anyone. "
 September 22, 2002, Sunday Times, 'Rothschild bankrolls Mandelson
 September 1, 2001, Karina Robinson for The Banker, 'A hard nut to
crack': "Karina Robinson talks to NM Rothschild's chairman Sir Evelyn de
Rothschild and finds a man reluctant to give much away... The next hour
(actually, the next 40 irritating minutes since I did not last the hour)
was spent being told that everything is "going well," "doing well" and
"with our name we can get in anywhere"... the meeting was set up by the
bank's public relations firm. It seems an odd strategy to push forward
someone who appears disinterested in communicating." Journalist Karina
Robinson gave Sir Evelyn de Rothschild the award of being the 'most
condescending' person she interviewed in recent times.
 April 24, 2006, Bloomberg News, 'Opus Dei, Vilified in 'Da Vinci
Code,' Runs Global MBA Schools': "Opus Dei is seeking more high-powered
members by funding pizza parties and seminars on embryonic research,
physician- assisted suicide and evolution near U.S. Ivy League campuses.
And it's targeting lawyers and bankers through monthly meetings at St.
Mary Moorfields church in the City of London financial district... Some
members, such as Eduardo Guilisasti, chief executive officer of
Santiago-based Vina Concha y Toro SA, Latin America's biggest winery,
advance the effort by giving their entire paycheck to help run Opus
Dei's more than 100 technical and management schools from Spain to
Mexico, to Vietnam, Guilisasti says... In the basement of a six-story
concrete building on the outskirts of Rome, young men and women in suits
scurry around a simulated office, fetching documents from laser printers
and hashing out business presentations. The fake corporate environment
has a name: Junior Consulting. Along with the Centro ELIS trade school
upstairs, it's the brainchild of Opus Dei... Cisco...; Vodafone
Group...; Nokia... all sponsor courses at Centro ELIS... Centro ELIS has
received about 800,000 euros ($990,000) in Italian government funds to
spawn at least 16 similar schools in China, Ecuador, Uruguay, Vietnam
and other countries, says Pierluigi Bartolomei, director of Centro
ELIS's technical school... Opus Dei also keeps a low profile at its IESE
Business School. The school, which has campuses in Madrid and Barcelona,
is a branch of the University of Navarra. Escriva founded the Pamplona,
Spain-based university in 1952. Some executives say they had no idea
they were associated with Opus Dei's activities. "I know nothing about
the Opus Dei connection,"says Peter Sutherland [Pilgrims Society],
chairman of both Goldman Sachs International and BP Plc, Europe's
biggest oil company, who is a member of IESE's international advisory
board... Like Centro ELIS, IESE is cultivating corporate connections.
PricewaterhouseCoopers LLP... Nissan Motor Co... Alcatel SA... and Banco
Santander Central Hispano SA, Spain's biggest bank, also provide
funding, according to IESE's Web site. Citigroup Inc., the world's
biggest financial services company, and Morgan Stanley, the
third-biggest U.S. securities firm by market value, are listed as
"supporting companies.'' The school says such support helps develop
research programs, train faculty and finance scholarships and
construction. Citigroup has sponsored student activities and backed
events in IESE's MBA program, says Eric Weber, IESE's associate dean for
executive education and an Opus Dei supernumerary." There are many other
articles like, but few named indicidual businesses.
 See reference 22.
 1993, Alan Clark, 'Diaries', p. 373 (About Clark's 1991 experience
with Le Cercle): "This entire outing is a right-wing think (or rather
thought) tank, funded by the CIA, which churns Cold War concepts
 2002, David Rockefeller, 'Memoirs', p. 412-413: "Members of the
Pesenti Group were all committed to European political and economic
integration, but a few - Archduke Otto of Austria, the head of the house
of Hapsburg and claimant to all the lands of the Austro-Hungarian
empire; Monsignor Alberto Giovanetti of the Vatican and a prominent
member of Opus Dei, the conservative Catholic organization; and
Jean-Paul León Violet, a conservative French intellectuel - were
preoccupied by the Soviet threat and the inexolerable rise to power of
the Communist parties of France and Italy."
 Ibid.: "Bilderberg overlapped for a time with my membership in a
relatively obscure but potentially even more controversial body known as
the Pesenti Group. I had first learned about it in October 1967 when
Carlo Pesenti... took me aside..."
 February 24, 1967, Time Magazine, 'Struggle for Freedom'
Cercle references in books (click for relevant
 1990, Xan Fielding, 'One Man in
His Time - The life of Lieutenant-Colonel NLD ('Billy') McLean, DSO'
 1993, Alan Clark, 'Diaries', p. 369-374
 1993, Brian Crozier, 'Free Agent', p. 99; p. 186; p. 190-194; p.
217-218; and p. 241
 1997, Robert Hutchinson, 'Their Kingdom Come – Inside the Secret
World of Opus Dei', p. 153-158
 2002, David Rockefeller, 'Memoirs', pages 412-413
Cercle references in newspaper or magazine
articles (Lobster Mag. articles not reproduced)
 June 29, 1997, The Independent, 'Aitken
dropped by the Right's secret club'
This is basically the news story that got the word out about Le Cercle
in a mainstream British newspaper, more than 40 years after it was
established. This article disappeared in the Independent's archives
without any discussion in the public (internet) domain.
 July 10, 1997, An Phoblacht/Republican News
 May 2001, Punch Magazine, 'Spooks in the House' (thanks to Lobster
 April 6, 2003, The Observer, 'So, Norman, any regrets this time?'
 June 18, 2004, Chancellery of HRH Crown Prince Alexander II of
Yugoslavia, Reception in honor of the "Le Cercle" conference
 September 5, 2004, Sunday Times, 'Le Cercle of the elite'
 June 21, 2005, Royal Embassy of Saudi Arabia - London / Ministry of
Foreign Affairs, 'Ambassador talks to major foreign policy-security
A question to the Embassy for additional information was ignored.
 Known historical Cercle
meetings (these days it meets one a year in Washington and once a year
at an overseas location)
 Known historical Cercle participants
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Special thanks to the four
David Icke I watched one of his DVDs
maybe two years back and heard him mention Le Cercle and the Safari
Club. So, obsessed as I am with names and places, I added them to my
existing list of other low profile and clandestine groups. Several
months later I found out the importance of these organizations and
together with that, came across Lobster for the first time. So,
without Icke this article might never have been created in the first
place. I would like to state though I don't really agree with Icke's
overall story and consider many of his sources extremely unreliable
David Teacher For all his early work on
Le Cercle that was published in Lobster. In 1991, Lobster announced
that David would soon publish a book on Le Cercle in France, soon to
be followed by a book in English. Unfortunately, that was the last
we heard from David, a translator at the EU in Brussels. The names
he mentioned in Lobster have been crucial in putting together this
David Guyatt For his article 'Circle of
Power' and for one of his emails going around the net in which he
mentioned that author Robert Hutchinson (briefly) adressed Le Cercle
in his book 'Their Kingdom Come'.
David "88" For giving unlimited and free
access to a variety of databases. David's databases were crucial in
making this article as extensive as it is now.
And finally, let's not forget an email from
April 19, 2006 with the advise to look at David Rockefeller's biography.
This kickstarted a second, and far more detailed, look into Le Cercle.
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