by Grigoriev O.A., Grigoriev Y.G., Stepanov V.S.,
Grigoriev O.A -
Center of Electromagnetic Safety*,
Grigoriev Y.G. and
- SSC (State Scientific Center) Institute of Biophysics,
Chekmarev O.M. - Center of State Sanitary Control
of Administrative Department of President of the Russian
Address for correspondence: Russia, 123182, Moscow,
Zhyvopysnaya St., 46; tel./fax +7 (495) 193-0187,
Published in Russian in
"Annual of Russian National Committee on Non-Ionising
Radiation Protection 2004-5" Moscow, 2006, page 205-216.
The following translation to english by UC Davis
student, Tatiana Kanare, August 2006.
The book begins in english: "The possible threat
analysis of the EMF technologies applications in
terrorist activity is presented for the first time."
The article ends in english:
Possibility Threat of The Bioelectromagnetic
Terrorism. The possiblity of the bioelectromagnetic
terrorism is discussed in this article. It was
analyzed main aims, ways and methods of EMF effects
for biologics objects. In opinion of authors, EMF
will be able to using for bioelectromagnetic
terrorism in futures."
A special thank you to
Anatolij, a victim of the Netherlands, who sent Mind
Justice the background information and this russian
article in 2005. You have made a difference, Anatolij,
Anatolij was a university
law student in 1997 when the severe psychotronic,
electromagnetic attacks began. The severe remote torture
he described continues to this day. It is unimaginable
and also similar to the many cases being reported
The principle possibility of the use of biological action of the
electromagnetic field (EMF) by terrorist elements is examined, and
also the respective possible ways, methods and aims of
electromagnetic influence on bio-object, corresponding measures on
warning of negative consequences of such influence are analyzed.
The article is prepared on the basis of
the materials of lecture by authors at the 2nd International
Conference “World Association Against Globalization of Criminality
and Terrorism”, held in Moscow on January 20-21, 2004.
Most often the term “electromagnetic terrorism” is used in relation
to the destruction of technical objects. Examining the theme of
biological action of EMF in relation to terrorist acts, the authors
considered it possible to use the term “bioelectromagnetic
terrorism”, taking into account that EMF, as well as factors related
to the weapon of mass destruction, can affect a man with a lethal
and nonlethal outcome, and affect all of the elements of biosphere
EMF is a biologically active physical factor, depending on the terms
of influence on bio-objects, it can exert harmful, dangerous or
The passage of Federal Law in effect from 2001,
“About a weapon” (article 6)
establishes the possibility of the existence of “weapon and
other objects, the striking action of which is based on the
usage of electromagnetic radiation” .
In problems of electromagnetic
terrorism, power levels, pulsing and broadband sources of EMF are
considered. It is fully justified, if the question is about
technical objects (computer networks, systems of electric supply and
etc.), when for realization of destruction, power characteristics
play an essential role. It goes without saying that high-power
electromagnetic impulses also have striking biological action, in
particular this question was considered in 2003 at the meeting of
the Russian National Committee on Defense from the Unionizing
However, a biological effect is not always determined by the amount
of energy. The biological action of EMF of radio frequency range is
carried out depending on the intensity by means of two basic
mechanisms – thermal and non-thermal, so-called informational or
containing information. At normal levels of influence on an organism
the response reaction can be registered at all levels: cell, system
The central nervous system,
cardio-vessel, immune and endocrine systems are the critical systems
of organism to be influenced by EMF. The reproductive system is also
sensitive to the certain modes of electromagnetic influence [2,3,6].
Under the influence of EMF the following parameters influence the
the intensity of EMF (size)
duration of the
influence – factor of time
type of signal
simultaneous combination of a few frequencies of EMF
periodicity of action
combination with other
unfavorable factors of physical and/or chemical nature
initial subjective state of a man and individual radio
The combination of the above mentioned parameters can
give different consequences for the reaction of the exposed
biological object to the rays.
The scientific research studies of the last decades have established
that at the non-lethal levels of the influence for the biological
reaction, the modulation of the influencing electromagnetic field
plays the determining role [3,4,5].
The uniqueness of biological action of EMF in comparison with other
physical factors of the influence is in the presence of
after-effects, thus the maximal biological reaction can become
apparent exactly in the period of after-effects.
The process of cumulation is important, i.e. the accumulation of
unhealthy reactions in the period of the repeated electromagnetic
influences during the protracted radiation.
Affecting bio-objects, EMF can be directly both as a striking factor
and a promoter or “catalyst” under the influence of other factors of
physical or chemical nature, and also as a component of
It goes without saying that the undetectable delivery of
electromagnetic radiation signal is extremely important, inasmuch as
a man does not have the proper sense-organs and direct perceptive
Obviously the enumerated variety of parameters of EMF, result in the
different biological reactions, and in theory allows the creation,
in principle, of new striking effects, which will make it possible
to provide a high quality distinction between the terrorist acts and
traditionally used ones.
Examining the effects of direct biological action of EMF, it is
necessary to remember the often quoted, by authors in anti-terrorist
subject, effect of “radio audibility”, which is known to the
specialists over 30 years. It is based on a thermal mechanism in
principle and requires enough high power expenses, as well as modes
of sharp microwave pulsing [6,7].
According to the results of experimental researches, distinctly
expressed biological effects are found at super small intensities of
the influence, when the heating of fabrics is not occurring and is
impossible in general. Thus, the method of organization of
electromagnetic signal and, first of all, the modulation plays the
leading role in bio-effects.
For example, it is experimentally shown
that the pulsed super-high frequencies of radiation (SHF), being
synchronized with a certain part of cardiac cycle, influences the
work of heart, changing frequency of rhythm of cardiac reductions,
depending on the change of frequency of modulation. During this
experiment, the intensity of influencing EMF did not exceed the set
maximum-possible level of EMF for the present time for the human
At low intensities of modulated EMF in
the experiment on the isolated hearts of frogs, the effect of heart
stop was produced; and on chicken embryos the possibility of
influence on early memory of chickens was shown on imprinting [8,9].
Numerous similar laboratory results achieved in different countries
can be shown, which demonstrate the potential possibility in the
near future of the appearance of new, nontraditional means of
defeat, based on biological activity of EMF.
For the estimation of the value of striking action of EMF, the fact
that there is a change in the sensitivity of an organism is
extremely important to other factors of environment after influence
of EMF of very low levels, including the change of stability to the
chemical factor. In particular, it can be related to the increase of
permeability of hematoencephalic barrier, as a result of which the
safe concentration of chemical substance in the environment can
become dangerous for the functional state and health of a man.
Thus, it is necessary to notice that if
prior EMF exposure is taken into account and the facts of
possibility of change of permeability of hematoencephalic were
related to the laboratory experiments [10, 11], the later published
results of the scientific studies of the Swedish specialists show
that it is possible under the influence of EMF of mobile telephones
[12, 13, 14].
It is appropriate to note that according to data of the
International Electromagnetic Project of the World Organization of
Health Protection, active research on the biological action of EMF,
including the aspects of the applied usage (medical,
biotechnological, military and etc.) are being developed in more
than half of world countries, including countries on territory of
which the known terrorist organizations are based. In Russia, to the
contrary, researches have been abandoned in the last decades, which
in the case of appearance of the relevant threat; it will not allow
realizing antiterrorist activity in this direction.
Examining the technical means of realization of tasks of
bioelectromagnetic terrorism, we must admit that according to modern
data in most cases for the achievement of effective influence the
use of difficult and unique equipment, and the work of the prepared
specialists is required. It, surely, limits the possibility of
terrorists on the modern stage.
According to the published data, the armed forces of the USA
successfully realized the complex of weapons for tactical purposes
on the basis of super-high frequencies generators . Presently it
is examined with the field tests in a stationary version, but a
mobile complex of truck and later air basing are planned.
This non-lethal weapon is intended for
the rapid local heating-up to 55C of skin cover on a depth to 0.5
mm. The mass stimulation of thermo-receptors leads to pain which
vanishes after termination of super-high frequencies of influence.
The distance of action of this weapon is 750 meters. It is scheduled
for deployment in 2008. It is obvious that for the reproduction of
similar weapons for terrorist aims, considerable material and
intellectual resources are required.
In our opinion, for planning of bioelectromagnetic terrorist
activity the already existent infrastructure of electromagnetic
sources can be used. The analysis conducted by authors shows that in
the present time, many sources of EMF are so close to population,
that they can be examined as the means of the hidden delivery of EM
Among such sources, it is possible to
select mobile connection (wireless and trunking) and electric supply
systems of buildings and construction. In accordance with our
estimation, performed by conducting hygienical research studies, a
general number of the population of the country, being in the
contact with EMF of the above mentioned sources, is presently no
less than 80 million people.
For carrying out local acts of individual or group destructive
electromagnetic biological influence, and also as an element of
complex influence, systems of electric supply of buildings can be
used. The actual data analysis shows that existence of
publicly-accessible technical means allow modulating currents
flowing through the systems of the electric supply, including the
sources of uninterrupted delivery.
Thus, for formation of the complex
magnetic condition in the apartments, elements of metal
constructions and pipelines of buildings can be used, and for
organization of modulation it is not quite necessary to use any
additional equipment, as systems of the electric supply in
buildings, having a difficult structure, allow to use electrical
engineering elements and calculations for creation of the magnetic
field directly, possessing difficult modulation and space-temporal
Thus, areas of local increased level of
the magnetic field of the industrial frequency can be formed, which
can lead to the oncological diseases, illnesses of the
cardio-vascular and central nervous systems under the long
influence. Besides, it is necessary to pay attention to the sources
of uninterrupted delivery, which can form distortions on the screens
of the means of visual display of information, leading to the
influence on a brain through a visual analyzer [16, 17].
Mobile (wireless and trunking) connection is the closest to the
objects of influence by means of the delivery of the biologically
significant electromagnetic field. For this purpose, both subscriber
terminals (wireless telephones and radio stations) and base stations
can be used. Taking into account the system of structure of mobile
connection, individual, group or mass influence on considerable or
preset local territories is possible.
The elements of mobile connection, especially base stations, are
characterized by low-power, so-called informational level of
influencing EMF. It is necessary to point out that the hygienically
setting of norms and control are measured and recorded only by
At the same time it is repeatedly proved
and is no longer questioned or doubted that in the development of
character and direction of biological reaction at the relatively low
levels of influence the method of organization of EMF signal
(modulation, intermittency factor, repetition and etc.) plays the
most important role. The most possible consequences are related to
functioning of the central nervous system under the condition of the
Two basic directions of unfavorable influence are possible:
accumulation (cumulation) of
unfavorable biological effect as a result of long-term influence
of EMF, accompanying regular work of elements of systems of
unfavorable biological reactions,
especially of central nervous system, developing in the preset
direction during the special organization of influence of EMF
elements of systems of mobile connection
In this connection at consideration of
possible antiterrorist activities with the use of elements of mobile
connection we select three stages of estimation of danger:
hygienical estimation of elements of
mobile connections in terms of regular usage
estimation of possibility of
organization of influence by changing the regime of work of
transmitting means of radio communication (Baltic system (BS),
subscriber terminal) without changing their essential technical
estimation of possibility of
organization of influence by changing technical parameters of
transmitting means of radio communication (influence by the
In accordance with the preliminary
analysis of possibility of the use of mobile connection, as a factor
of the possible directed influence on the state of health and
conduct, the most obvious and potentially dangerous effects can be:
provocation of epileptic reaction
(provoked development of convulsive activity)
change of permeability of
the changed state of behavior
(oppression, aggression, depression)
the development of the
However, as a thorough analysis of
technical abilities of transmitting means of mobile connection was
not conducted, additional possibilities and consequences of their
use is possible.
It is known that a regular monitoring of electromagnetic
environment, formed by networks of mobile connection, is carried out
only from the point of providing electromagnetic compatibility
(EMC), the external control after the modes of exploitation and
management of subscriber terminals here is not carried out. In the
present time all mobile phones and trunking radio stations are made
Taking into account this circumstance,
in the conditions of absence of individual control of
electromagnetic safety and at having a special purpose delivery for
the different corporate programs, including at providing the state
structure, subscriber terminals can be placed, for example, both
with constantly increased power and with additional or changed
generators of electromagnetic signals.
In these conditions there is no
guarantee that the following scenario may not occur; the result of
the influence of EMF mobile telephones would be the penetration of
the hematoencephalic barrier of the brain by highly active chemical
substances which are present in the building.
Thus, in our opinion, mobile connection is potentially the means for
the realization of terrorist tasks of both physical defeat of people
and psycho-terrorism. Taking into account the relative complexity
and spending required, the most obvious possibilities in this case,
are purpose groups.
Examining a possibility of mass bioelectromagnetic terrorism it is
necessary to examine the structure of subject domain of “methods and
facilities of terrorist activity”. It takes “the agents of influence
in the links of the control” and action system of “provocation of
taking necessary decision” to the social class of methods of the
directed influence .
As it was indicated above, more than a
half of population of the country is in contact with the modern
sources of EMF in domestic and non-productive conditions of
influence. Consequently, the cost of error sharply increases at
determination of maximum-possible level of the influence of EMF.
In the period of the existence of the USSR careful and multilateral
hygienical researches were followed by the development and
implementation of all essential for the population and mass sources
of EMF, from television centers to the super-high frequency stove.
Now Russia is the sole country in the world, which develops mobile
connection and, contrary to its own experience of the preceding
period and modern international experience, does not conduct the
relevant medical-biological researches.
It is not a secret to experts that
despite their opinion and experience of hygienical science of the
period of 60s-80s, the introduction of mobile connection in Russia
has been taking place since 1994 actually without conducting
adequate researches of biological action and with the scientifically
groundless maximum-possible levels of EMF for the population.
Presently more than 36 million people have mobile telephones, and
about 10% of users are children, it is planned to lead the number of
proprietors of mobile telephones up to 60-80 million.
On the territories already covered by
mobile connection networks, about 80 million people live. The
creation of the federal network of mobile radio connection of a
standard of “TETRA” also takes place without medical-biological
accompaniment, while subscriber terminals of this standard are more
powerful than mobile telephones, and are intended for the
professional usage, including for special services.
Whether the act of terror (in accordance
with the above-mentioned definition) is the absence of adequate
ground of electromagnetic safety and research of bioelectromagnetic
terrorist possibilities of mobile connections, the answer must be
given by experts in antiterrorist activity. It is obvious that in
modern conditions, the role of electromagnetic situation is very
high and the insufficient control of sources and mechanisms of its
generation can be an element of the long destructive influence on
great masses of population of Russia.
It is necessary to note that the operating formulation of the law
“About a weapon” does not limit possibilities of potential
terrorists. In accordance to the law the weapons are wares,
“striking action of which is based on the use of electromagnetic
radiation, and which have outlet parameters, exceeding the size set
by the state standards of the Russian Federation and adequate norms
of federal organ of executive power in the area of health
However, the hygienical setting of norms
in our country does not take into account all parameters for the
biological reaction under the influence of EMF, oriented only on the
The electromagnetic field is a
biologically dangerous factor, which under the certain condition
can be used for the striking action in terrorist aims.
The electromagnetic field, as a
factor of a biological influence, possesses a number of unique
specific features, including the dependence of bio-effect from
the modulation and method of organization of signal, allowing
for different terrorist tasks, including tasks of
The use of the electromagnetic field
in combination with other types of weapons of mass defeat,
foremost chemical, can sharply multiply their terrorist
It is possible to use existent
sources of the electromagnetic field close to the population, in
particular mobile connection and systems of electro-supply of
buildings, as facilities of delivery of a factor of the
The most obvious directions of
application of bioelectromagnetic terrorism are toward groups of
special importance, and especially at providing the defense to
traditional directions of safety.
The electromagnetic situation can be
the element of a long duration of destructive influence on great
masses of population, especially on the generation of children.
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